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Organic Chemistry Alkanes (end with –ane, simplest hydrocarbons, contain only single covalent bonds) # of CPrefixSimple Formula 1meth-CH 4 2eth-C 2 H 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Alkanes (end with –ane, simplest hydrocarbons, contain only single covalent bonds) # of CPrefixSimple Formula 1meth-CH 4 2eth-C 2 H 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry Alkanes (end with –ane, simplest hydrocarbons, contain only single covalent bonds) # of CPrefixSimple Formula 1meth-CH 4 2eth-C 2 H 6 3prop-C 3 H 8 4but-C 4 H 10 5pent-C 5 H 12 6hex-C 6 H 14 7hept-C 7 H 16 8oct-C 8 H 18 9non-C 9 H 20 10dec-C 10 H 22

2 -all alkanes that are straight chains are named n-alkane (means normal) C 4 H 10 = n-butane -look at pg 1010 *iso-, and neo-

3 Branched Chain Alkanes -alkane group takes the place of a H atom -called a substituent alkyl group- hydrocarbon substituent -ends with –yl (take away -ane) -contains one less H -look at # of C to name ex- CH 3 = methylC 2 H 5 = ethyl

4 Naming Branched Chain Alkanes 1)Find the longest chain = parent molecule ex- heptane 2)# the C’s in the chain, making sure alkyl groups have lower numbers, can count backwards ex- 2,3,4 instead of 4,5,6 3)Add #’s to names of alkyl groups, with a dash in between ex: 2-methyl3-methyl4-ethyl

5 4)Use prefixes to denote multiples of the same alkyl groups, commas between #’s ex- 2,3-dimethyl 5)Put alkyl groups in alphabetical order ignoring prefixes ex- 4-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl 6)**Use proper punctuation -commas separate #’s -hyphens separate #’s and letters -no spaces

6 7)Add parent chain name ex- 4-ethyl-2,3-dimethylheptane *Remember prefixes* 2 = di-3 = tri-4 = tetra- 5 = penta-6 = hexa-7 = hepta- 8 = octa-9 = nona-10 = deca-

7 Drawing Structural Formula From Name 1)Find parent chain and draw 2)# C’s on parent chain 3)Identify substituents and attach to proper C 4)Add hydrogen as needed Try These!! 1)3-ethylhexane 2)2,2,4-trimethylpentane 3) 3-ethyl-3,4-dimethyloctane

8 saturated compounds- contain max # of H -all alkanes, all single C-C bonds unsaturated compounds- do not contain max # of H -contain double or triple C-C bonds -alkenes and alkynes Alkenes -contain at least one double C═C bond

9 Naming Alkenes 1)Find longest chain containing double bond -this is parent chain -gets –ene ending ex- butene 2)# so that C atoms of the double bond get the lowest #’s, then look at alkyl groups to get lowest # -double bond gets numbered in the name ex- 2-butene

10 3)Substituents get named the same as alkanes ex- 2-methyl 4)Put all together ex: 2-methyl-2-butene Alkynes -named same way except end in –yne 9104/organic_nomenclature_quizzes.htm

11 Structural Isomers -compounds that have the same simple formula, but different structural formulas Ex- C 4 H 10 n-butane2-methylpropane Try This!! Write the structural formulas/skeleton formulas and names for the nine isomers of heptane

12 Cyclic Hydrocarbons-contain a hydrocarbon ring -all single bonded cyclic hydrocarbons are named with the prefix cyclo- ex- cyclopropane -if have subgroups, name just like before

13 Try these!! 1-ethyl-3-methylcyclohexane 1,3-dimethylcyclopentane

14 unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons/aromatic hydrocarbons -contain 6 carbon with 3 double bonds -called benzene =

15 -benzene can have subgroups coming off of it 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylbenzene methylbenzene

16 -if benzene is a substituent it is called phenyl 2-phenylpropane -or isopropylbenzene

17 Functional Groups **R represents C chain attached to functional group HalocarbonsR-X X= a halogen functional group = halogen -use root of halogen to name

18 ex- chloromethane 1,4-dibromobenzene

19 AlcoholsR-OH functional group = OH (hydroxyl) -name same as others except ending on parent chain drops the –e and gets an –ol -must number where the -OH is located -alcohols containing 2, 3 or 4 –OH get prefix (diol, triol, tetrol) after parent chain ex- methanol

20 1,2-ethanediol 2-methyl-2-propanol

21 EthersR-O-R functional group = ether -name R groups then add ether (space between) ex- ethylmethyl ether diphenyl ether

22 Aldehydes functional group = carbonyl group -name same as others, but gets the –al ending -OH is always on the terminal carbon, so no need to number ex- propanal

23 3-phenyl-2-propenal 2-methylbutanal

24 Ketones functional group = carbonyl group -to name, drop –e on parent chain and add –one -number so ═O gets lowest # ex- propanone

25 2,4-dimethyl-3-hexanone diphenylmethanone

26 Carboxylic Acids functional group = carboxyl -ends with –oic acid ex- ethanoic acid

27 4-methyl-3-pentenoic acid

28 Esters functional group = ester -get –oate ending, with space between, parent chain is where ester group is located -esters have fruity, pleasant odors ex- ethyl ethanoate

29 butyl propanoate ethyl pentanoate

30 Amines functional group = amine group -named by groups attached and end with amine ex- ethylamine

31 trimethylamine ethylmethylamine

32 Summary TypeStructure Group Ending halocarbon R-X X=halogen root of halogen alcohol R-OH hydroxyl -ol ether R-O-R ether ether aldehyde carbonyl -al *on terminal carbon ketone carbonyl -one carboxylic acid -COOH carboxyl -oic acid ester ester -oate amine NR 3 amine amine


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