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Chapter 11 “Chemical Reactions”

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1 Chapter 11 “Chemical Reactions”

2 Section 11.1 p. 321 Describing Chemical Reactions

3 All chemical reactions…
have two parts: Reactants = substances you start with Products = end with reactants turn into products Reactants ® Products

4 - Page 321 Products Reactants

5 In a chem rxn Atoms not created or destroyed (Law of Conservation of Mass) rxn described in a: #1. sentence every item is a word Copper reacts with chlorine to form copper (II) chloride. #2. word equation some symbols used Copper + chlorine ® copper (II) chloride

6 Symbols in equations? – Text page 323
arrow (→) separates reactants from products (points to products) Read as: “reacts to form” or yields plus sign = “and” (s) after formula = solid: Fe(s) (g) = gas: CO2(g) (l) = liquid: H2O(l)

7 Symbols used in equations
(aq) after formula = dissolved in water, aqueous solution: NaCl(aq) is salt water solution ­ used after product - indicates gas produced: H2↑ ¯ used after product - indicates solid produced: PbI2↓

8 Symbols used in equations
double arrow indicates a reversible reaction (more later) shows that heat supplied to rxn indicates catalyst supplied (here, platinum is catalyst)

9 substance that speeds up rxn, w/o being changed or used up in rxn
What is a catalyst? substance that speeds up rxn, w/o being changed or used up in rxn Enzymes - biological or protein catalysts in your body

10 #3. The Skeleton Equation
Uses formulas and symbols to describe rxn but doesn’t indicate how many; means they’re NOT balanced All chem equations are description of rxn

11 Write a skeleton equation for:
Solid iron (III) sulfide reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to form iron (III) chloride and hydrogen sulfide gas. Nitric acid dissolved in water reacts with solid sodium carbonate to form liquid water and carbon dioxide gas and sodium nitrate dissolved in water.

12 Now, read these equations:
Fe(s) + O2(g) ® Fe2O3(s) Cu(s) + AgNO3(aq) ® Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) NO2(g) N2(g) + O2(g)

13 #4. Balanced Chemical Equations
Atoms can’t be created or destroyed in an ordinary reaction: All atoms we start with we must end up with (balanced!) balanced equation has same # of each element on both sides of equation

14 Rules for balancing: Assemble correct formulas for all reactants and products, using “+” and “→” Count # of atoms of each type on both sides Balance elements one at a time by adding coefficients (the numbers in front) where you need more - save balancing the H and O until LAST! (hint: I prefer to save O until the very last) Double-Check make sure balanced

15 Never Never change subscript (only change coefficients)
changing subscript (formula) describes different chemical H2O different than H2O2 Never put coefficient in middle of formula; only in front 2NaCl is okay, but Na2Cl is not.

16 Practice Balancing Examples
_AgNO3 + _Cu ® _Cu(NO3)2 + _Ag _Mg + _N2 ® _Mg3N2 _P + _O2 ® _P4O10 _Na + _H2O ® _H2 + _NaOH _CH4 + _O2 ® _CO2 + _H2O 2 2 3 4 5 2 2 2 2 2

17 Balancing Equations Balancing Chemical Reactions
Mark Rosengarten – 8:21

18 Types of Chemical Reactions
Section 11.2 p. 330 Types of Chemical Reactions

19 Types of Reactions 5 major types.
predict the products predict whether or not they will happen at all How? We recognize them by their reactants

20 #1 - Combination Reactions
Combine = put together 2 substances combine to make one cmpd (also called “synthesis”) Ca + O2 ® CaO SO3 + H2O ® H2SO4 predict products, especially if reactants are 2 elements Mg + N2 ® _______ Mg3N2 (symbols, charges, cross)

21 Complete and balance: Then balance by changing just coefficients only
Ca + Cl2 ® Fe + O2 ® (assume iron (II) oxide is the product) Al + O2 ® Remember first step…write correct formulas – you can still change subscripts at this point, but not while balancing! Then balance by changing just coefficients only

22 #1 – Combination Reactions
Additional Notes: a) Some nonmetal oxides react with H2O - produces acid: SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 b) Some metallic oxides react with H2O - produces base: CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2 (how “acid rain” forms)

23 #2 - Decomposition Reactions
decompose = fall apart one reactant breaks apart into 2 or more elements or cmpds NaCl Na + Cl2 CaCO CaO + CO2 Note: energy (heat, sunlight, electricity, etc.) usually required

24 #2 - Decomposition Reactions
predict products if binary cmpd (made of 2 elements) It breaks apart into the elements: H2O HgO

25 #2 - Decomposition Reactions
If cmpd has > 2 elements you must be given one of products other product from the missing pieces NiCO CO2 + ___ H2CO3(aq) ® CO2 + ___ heat

26 #3 - Single Replacement Reactions
One element replaces another (new dance partner) Reactants must be an element & cmpd Products will be a different element and different cmpd Na + KCl ® K + NaCl F2 + LiCl ® LiF + Cl2 (Cations switched) (Anions switched)

27 #3 Single Replacement Reactions
Metals replace other metals (they can also replace H) K + AlN ® Zn + HCl ® Think of water as: HOH Metals replace first H, then combines w/ hydroxide (OH). Na + HOH ®

28 #3 Single Replacement Reactions
can even tell whether or not single replacement rxn will happen: b/c some chemicals more “active” than others More active replaces less active list – p Activity Series of Metals Higher on list replaces lower

29 The “Activity Series” of Metals
Lithium Potassium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Chromium Iron Nickel Lead Hydrogen Bismuth Copper Mercury Silver Platinum Gold Higher activity Metals can replace other metals, if they are above metal trying to replace (i.e. Zn will replace Pb) Metals above H can replace H in acids. Metals from Na upward can replace hydrogen in H2O Lower activity

30 The “Activity Series” of Halogens
Higher Activity Halogens can replace other halogens in compounds, if they are above halogen they are replacing Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Lower Activity 2NaCl(s) + F2(g)  2NaF(s) + Cl2(g) ??? MgCl2(s) + Br2(g)  No Reaction! ???

31 #3 Single Replacement Reactions Practice:
Fe + CuSO4 ® Pb + KCl ® Al + HCl ®

32 #4 - Double Replacement Reactions
Two things replace each other. Reactants must be two ionic compounds, in aqueous solution NaOH + FeCl3 ® positive ions change place (dance partners) NaOH + FeCl3 ® Fe+3 OH- + Na+1 Cl-1 = NaOH + FeCl3 ® Fe(OH)3 + NaCl

33 #4 - Double Replacement Reactions
Have certain “driving forces”, or reasons only happens if one product: a) doesn’t dissolve in water & forms solid (a “precipitate”), or b) is gas that bubbles out, or c) is molecular compound (usually water)

34 Complete and balance: assume all of the following reactions actually take place: CaCl2 + NaOH ® CuCl2 + K2S ® KOH + Fe(NO3)3 ® (NH4)2SO4 + BaF2 ®

35 How to recognize which type?
Look at the reactants: E + E = Combination C = Decomposition E + C = Single replacement C + C = Double replacement

36 Practice Examples: H2 + O2 ® H2O ® Zn + H2SO4 ® HgO ® KBr + Cl2 ®
AgNO3 + NaCl ® Mg(OH)2 + H2SO3 ®

37 #5 – Combustion Reactions
Combustion means “add oxygen” Normally, a cmpd composed of only C, H, (and maybe O) is reacted with oxygen – called “burning” Complete combustion, products are CO2 and H2O If incomplete, products are CO (or possibly just C) and H2O

38 Combustion Reaction Examples:
C4H10 + O2 ® (assume complete) C4H10 + O2 ® (incomplete) C6H12O6 + O2 ® (complete) C8H8 + O2 ® (incomplete)

39 SUMMARY: An equation... Describes a rxn
Must be balanced (follows the Law of Conservation of Mass) only balance by changing coefficients special symbols to indicate physical state, catalyst or energy required, etc.

40 Reactions 5 major types We can tell what type they are by looking at reactants Single Replacement happens based on the Activity Series Double Replacement happens if one product is: 1) a precipitate (an insoluble solid), 2) water (a molecular compound), or 3) a gas

41 Section 11.3 p. 342 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
KMnO4 Co(NO3)2 NiCl2 CuSO4 K2Cr2O7 K2CrO4

42 Net Ionic Equations Many reactions occur in water- that is, in aqueous solution When dissolved in water, many ionic cmpds “dissociate”, or separate, into cations & anions Now write ionic equation

43 Net Ionic Equations Example (needs to be a double replacement reaction) AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3 1. this is the full balanced equation 2. next, write it as ionic equation by splitting the cmpds into their ions: Ag1+ + NO31- + Na1+ + Cl1-  AgCl + Na1+ + NO31- Note that the AgCl did not ionize, because it is a “precipitate” (Table 11.3 p. 344)

44 Net Ionic Equations 3. simplify by crossing out ions not directly involved (called spectator ions) Ag1+ + Cl1-  AgCl This is called the net ionic equation Let’s talk about precipitates before we do some other examples

45 Predicting the Precipitate
Insoluble salt is a precipitate [note Figure 11.11, p.342 (AgCl)] General solubility rules are found: Table 11.3, p. 344 in textbook Reference section - page R54 (Table B.9)

46 Let’s do some examples together of net ionic equations, starting with these reactants:

47 BaCl2 + AgNO3 →

48 NaCl + Ba(NO3)2 →

49 Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) 

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