2Learning Objectives Explain why work groups form and function. Classify work groups and their relevance for supervisors.State some important research findings about work groups.Discuss the importance of employee morale and its relationship to teamwork and productivity.
3Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the factors that influence employee morale and the supervisor’s role in dealing with with both external and internal factors.Discuss techniques to assess employee morale, including observation and employee attitude surveys.Understand why counselling is an important part of the supervisor’s job.
4Learning ObjectivesIdentify programs that organizations use to assist employees with personal and work-related problems, including workplace violence.
5Why Work Groups? Companionship and identification Behaviour guidelines Problem solvingProtection
6Cohesive Groups Members perceive they have higher status Generally are smallShare similar personal characteristicsAre relatively distant from other groupsForm due to outside pressures or for self-protectionCan communicate relatively easilyHave succeeded in some group effort
7Classifications of Work Groups Command—based on authority relationshipsTask—cross-functional teamFriendship—Based on similar personalities and social interestsSpecial interest—exist to accomplish something as a group
8Hawthorne StudiesRelay assembly room experiment—primary reasons for improved performance were attitudes and moraleBank wiring observation room experiment—a work group can negatively impact job performance
9Team ResearchTeam members must be committed to the group and to the performance of the group.Teams function better when they are small.Teams should be composed of individuals who have complementary and sufficient skills.Teams should be committed to specific and realistic objectives.(Source: Katzenbach and Smith)
10Team ResearchSupervisors can feel threatened by a transition to teams; they need coaching, support, and encouragement.Team members must be held accountable.New team leadership roles for supervisors include coaching and facilitating.Communication becomes more important.(Source: Jones and Beyerlein)
11Team Sports as a Model“Team sports could not exist without, well, teams. Competent, superbly professional role players, the good soldiers who do what’s asked of them and don’t bask in anyone’s attention, are the sine qua non of the organizations that win year after year.”– Kenneth Turan
12Collaborative Workplace Throughout the organization, employees and management share authority for decision making.Teamwork processes promote trust, integrity, consensus, and shared ownership.People want and need to be valued for their contributions.
13Teams that WorkFocus on managing the team as a group and having the team manage its members.Are designed to be effective both in terms of improving productivity and the satisfaction of team members.
1416 Keys Group members agree on and commit to team goals. All members participate actively in meetings.All team members follow team rules, guidelines, and procedures.All members are valued.Team members share vital information.
1516 Keys Members express their ideas without fear. Use a systematic problem solving approach, but encourages creative thinking.All members are included in problem solving and decision making.Decisions are made by consensus.The team is cohesive.
1616 Keys Conflict is viewed as healthy. Groups members give honest feedback.Team training and peer helping.Team continually evaluates its performance.Pride in team accomplishments.Members enjoy their team affiliation.
17Morale The attitudes and feelings of individuals and groups toward their worktheir environmenttheir supervisorstheir top-level managementthe organization
18Workplace Spirituality Organizational efforts to make the work environment more meaningful and creative by relating work to employees’ personal values and spiritual beliefs.
19External Factors Influencing Morale Family relationshipsCare of children or elderlyFinancesFriendsVehicle breakdownsSickness or death in family
20Internal Factors Influencing Morale Workplace incivilityDownsizingCompensationJob securityNature of workRelations with coworkersWorking conditionsRecognition
21Workplace IncivilityRemember your purpose—eliminate the behaviour and preserve the team.Pause and evaluate what was said—content, context, tone.Be assertive—stay in control.Take action—stop the behaviour when it happens.
22Assessing Morale Observation and study Exit interviews–interviews with individuals who leave a firm to assess morale and reasons for leaving
23Assessing MoraleEmployee attitude surveys - survey of employee opinions about major aspects of organizational life used to assess morale
24Organizational Development Meetings with groups under the guidance of a neutral conference leader to solve problems that are hindering organizational effectiveness
25CounsellingEfforts by the supervisor to deal with on-the-job performance problems that are the result of an employee’s personal problemsMay hold counselling interview to encourage employee to discuss problems openly and develop solutions
26Assistance ProgramsEmployee assistance programs (EAP)–company programs to assist employees with certain personal or work-related problems that are interfering with job performanceWellness programs–organized efforts by a firm to help employees to get and stay healthy in order to remain productive
27Assistance ProgramsOmbudsman–staff person who serves as a neutral mediator in resolving conflicts on the job