Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Teamwork"— Presentation transcript:
1An Introduction to Teamwork Authored by Andrea White, PhD and Valerie West, EdD for the C3 Initiative
2Teaching Team Skills: Goals for Today Introduction to Team Competencies/ Content for teachingTeam exercise – as an exampleObservation and FeedbackReview Handbook ContentsQuestions and evaluation
3What is a Team?Two or more individuals with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task.Teams make decisions, solve problems, provide support, accomplish missions, and plan their work.
4How is a Team Different from a Group or Committee? Teams embody a collective action arising out of task interdependencyMembers of the team agree on the goalMembers agree that they must work together to achieve the goalEach member is viewed as having one or more important roles to play to successfully achieve the goalThere is less hierarchy within the unit than in most work groups
5Why is Teamwork Important in Healthcare? While our healthcare delivery system has the potential to be outstanding, our system currently is not as safe, effective, or efficient as it should be.Promoting teamwork and good communication among health professionals can dramatically improve healthcare delivery, resulting in much better outcomes for our patients.How do we know this?
6There are Many Types of Teams Examples of Teams:Athletic Team – people working together to win a gameNatural Work Group – people working together every day in same office with similar processes and equipmentBusiness Team – cross-functional team overseeing a specific product line or customer segmentImprovement Team – ad hoc team with responsibility for improving an existing processHealthcare Team – several healthcare professionals working closely together for the benefit of a patient or group of patients
7Quality and Acceptance When to use a team?Quality and AcceptanceLow Quality/ Low acceptanceFlip a coinHigh Quality/ Low acceptanceAsk an ExpertLow Quality/ High AcceptanceGroup decisionHigh Quality/ High acceptanceTeam Consensus
8Understanding group behavior Group Content - what is being said, the words, the discussionGroup Process - how the group works, methods, ways of making decisions, how people participate
9Aspects of Group Process: Communication Who talks to whom?Who interrupts and how is it handled?How are quiet members treated?High and low participators? Shifts in participation levels?Do people look at each other when they talk?How are new members treated?
10Aspects of Group Process: Decision -making What process does the group use to make decisions?Is the process agreed upon by everyone?Does the process change as group proceeds?Does anyone make a decision and carry it out without agreement from the others?Is there evidence of a majority pushing a decisionAre minority opinions heard?
11Aspects of Group Process: Problem-solving Does the group take time to understand the problem?Is the problem well articulated?Is there time for brainstorming creative solutions?Can the group move to from problem identification, identifying possible solutions, to selecting solutions and implementation?
12Group Problem Solving IDENTIFY PROBLEM Involve people Generate ideas PresentationListen for commonThemesOrganize ideasEvaluate alternativesManage conflictDetails/FinishMotivateMonitor progressFind resourcesGet informationAssign responsibilitiesDevelop plan
13Recognizing Dysfunctional Behavior BlockingAggressionDominatingWithdrawingOut of field behavior
14Team Roles: Task Initiating Seeking and Giving Information Clarifying SummarizingConsensus TakingAccountability
15Team Roles: Relationships Communication GatekeepingEncouragingResolving ConflictAcknowledging FeelingsSetting Standards/NormsOpenness
16Attitudes for Effective Teamwork Appreciation for value of team decisionsRespect for team membersMutual trustOpenness to feedbackReflection on group process and interest in improvingShared vision
17Team Exercise Instructions for Observers Instructions for Team members Scoring, Team members and Observer commentsDiscussion
18What are Characteristics of Effective Teams? Members have a clear goalThe focus is on achieving resultsThere is a plan for achieving the goalMembers have clear rolesMembers are committed to the goalMembers are competentThey achieve decisions through consensusThere is diversity among team membersMembers have effective interpersonal skillsThey know each other well and have good relationships
19More CharacteristicsEach member feels empowered to act, speak up, offer ideasEach member has a high standard of excellenceAn informal climate and easiness exists among membersThe team has the support of managementThe team is open to new ideasThere is periodic self-assessmentThere is shared leadership of the teamThe team is a relatively small sizeThere is recognition of team member accomplishmentsThere are sufficient resources to support the team work
20Effective Team-Building Takes Time There must be frequent and prolonged contactTeam members come together around a specific goal or projectEffective teams go through four stages of team development
21What are the Four Stages of Team Development? FormingStormingNormingPerformingEvery effective team goes through these life cycle stages
22FormingTeam members are introduced and begin getting to know each otherGoals and tasks are establishedGenerally polite behavior among membersNorms are not understood
23StormingMembers are sizing each other up and may feel more comfortable and voice their viewsMembers may compete for team rolesMay argue about goals or how they should be accomplishedMay choose sides against other members
24NormingOnce issues are resolved, agreement occurs around team norms and expectationsTrust and common interests are developingRoles and objectives are clarified and understood
25Performing Members make contributions and are motivated by results Leadership is shared according to members’ knowledge and skillsNorms and culture are well understoodTasks get accomplished effectively and efficiently
26ReferencesThiagarajan, S. and Parker, G. (1999). Teamwork and Teamplay. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.Dean, P., LaVallee, R., & McLaughlin, C. (1999). Teams at the core of continuous learning in McLaughlin, & Kaluzny, A. (eds.) Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care: Theory, Implementation, and Applications, 147 – 168.