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© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. Chapter 12: MANAGING WORK GROUPS: TEAMWORK, MORALE, AND COUNSELING Leonard: Supervision 11e
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–2 AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: 1.Explain why work groups form and function and why they are important. 2.Classify work groups and their relevance for supervisors. 3.State some important research findings about work groups. 4.Discuss the importance of employee morale and its relationship to teamwork and productivity. 5.Identify the factors that influence employee morale.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–3 AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: (cont’d) 6.Discuss techniques for assessing employee morale, including observation and employee attitude surveys. 7.Understand why counseling is an important part of the supervisor’s job. 8.Identify programs that organizations use to help employees with personal and work-related problems, including workplace violence.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–4 Understanding Work Groups and Their Importance Why Work Groups Form and FunctionWhy Work Groups Form and Function Companionship and identification Behavior guidelines Problem solving Protection
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–5 Understanding Work Groups and Their Importance (cont’d) Highly Cohesive Work Groups:Highly Cohesive Work Groups: Have members who perceive themselves as having higher status than other employees. Are small. Has members with similar personal characteristics Are relatively physically distant from other employees. Have formed due to outside pressures or for self- protection. Have members who communicate relatively easily. Have succeeded in some group effort, which encourages members to seek new group objectives.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–6 Classification of Work Groups Command GroupCommand Group Is a grouping of employees according to authority relationships on the formal organization chart. Task Group or Cross-functional TeamTask Group or Cross-functional Team Is a grouping of employees who come together to accomplish a particular task. Can be a specialized subset of the task group such as a customer-satisfaction team. Friendship GroupFriendship Group Is an informal grouping of employees based on similar personalities and social interests.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–7 Classification of Work Groups (cont’d) Friendship GroupFriendship Group Is an informal grouping of employees based on similar personalities and social interests. May be brought together by Command and task groups Special-interest GroupSpecial-interest Group Is a grouping of employees that exists to accomplish something in a group individuals do not choose to pursue individually. Examples: employee protest committees, labor unions
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–8 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups Insights from the Hawthorne StudiesInsights from the Hawthorne Studies Comprehensive research studies that focused on work-group dynamics as they related to employee attitudes and productivity. Groups affect and control the behaviors of individual members through the enforcement of group norms. Individuals and groups are affected by the attention paid to them by supervisors.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–9 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups (cont’d) Insights from Team ResearchInsights from Team Research Principles associated with effective work teams (Katzenbach and Smith): Team members must be committed to the group and to the performance of the group; Teams function better when they are small, usually ten or fewer members; Teams should be composed of individuals who have skills that are complementary and sufficient to deal with the problem Teams should be committed to objectives that are specific and realistic.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–10 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups (cont’d) Insights from Team Research (cont’d)Insights from Team Research (cont’d) Developing high performance work teams requires that: Supervisors be coached, supported, and encouraged in their new roles during the transition to teams. Team members be held accountable for their actions to increase feelings of personal responsibility for the team’s success. New team leadership roles for supervisors include coaching and facilitating. Communication is emphasized as team leaders become focused on processes and use meetings to clarify team roles.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–11 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups (cont’d) Insights from Team Research (cont’d)Insights from Team Research (cont’d) Transforming a culture of losing (Schuerholz): Gather everyone, communicate the plan, and preach it daily. Constantly remind them what works. Don’t be afraid to get rid of people who don’t buy in. Make the lowest-level employee feel as important to success as the top-level executives. Show trust in everyone to do their jobs well.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–12 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups (cont’d) Synergistic EffectSynergistic Effect Is the interaction of two or more individuals such that their combined efforts are greater than the sum of their individual efforts. TeamworkTeamwork Is people working cooperatively to solve problems and achieve goals important to the group. Collaborative WorkplaceCollaborative Workplace Is a work environment characterized by joint decision making, shared accountability and authority, and high trust levels between employees and managers.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–13 FIGURE 12.1 Characteristics of effective work teams. KEYS TO EFFECTIVE WORK TEAMS Top management removes the barriers, i.e., clears the roadblocks out of the way. Team members receive training on how to work together. Group members agree on team goals and objectives and commit to those goals. All members participate actively in team meetings and discussions. All team members follow team rules, guidelines, and procedures. All members are valued and treated with respect and dignity. Team members share vital information and ensure that everyone is informed on a need-to-know basis. Members express their ideas without fear of retribution. Team members also feel free to disagree, and the group grows with differences of opinion. The team uses a systematic problem-solving approach, but members are encouraged to think “outside the box” (i.e., alternative ways of thinking are encouraged). All members are included in solving problems, developing alternatives, and institutionalizing decisions.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–14 FIGURE 12.1 Characteristics of effective work teams. (cont’d) KEYS TO EFFECTIVE WORK TEAMS Decisions are made by consensus (i.e., all team members support decisions, even though they may not totally agree with those decisions; therefore, every team member feels ownership for the team’s decisions and responsibility for the team’s success). The team is cohesive—openness, trust, support, and encouragement are always present. Conflict is viewed as healthy and is brought out into the open and addressed in a timely manner. Group members give each other honest feedback on performance; constructive feedback is used to improve performance. Team training and peer helping are essential elements of the team process. Peers help team members who may need individualized attention. The team continually evaluates its performance and uses that information as the basis for improvement. Team members take pride in team accomplishments. Challenging tasks, recognition of accomplishments, and continued support from top management fuels the drive for more. Members enjoy their team affiliation.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–15 Research Insights for Managing Work Groups (cont’d) Virtual TeamVirtual Team Geographically separated people who are working on a common project and linked by communication technologies.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–16 Understanding and Maintaining Employee Morale MoraleMorale A composite of feelings and attitudes that individuals and groups have toward their work, working condition, supervisors, top-level management, and the organization. Workplace SpiritualityWorkplace Spirituality Organizational efforts to make the work environment more meaningful and creative by relating work to employees’ personal values and spiritual beliefs.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–17 Understanding and Maintaining Employee Morale (cont’d) The Downside of Downsizing and Outsourcing on MoraleThe Downside of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Morale Downsizings and outsourcings force employees to sever workplace friendships, leaving those who remain to suffer from “survivors’ syndrome.” Incivility is on the rise, in part because of time and productivity pressures from managers trying to squeeze the most out of survivors.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–18 External and Internal Factors Influencing Morale External FactorsExternal Factors Family relationships Care of children or elderly parents Financial difficulties Problems with friends Vehicle breakdowns Sickness or death in the family Internal FactorsInternal Factors Compensation Job security The nature of the work Relations with coworkers Working conditions Recognition
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–19 Workplace Incivility The Changing WorkplaceThe Changing Workplace Incivility has worsened in the past ten years. Rude people are three times more likely to be in higher positions than their targets. Men are seven times more likely to be rude or insensitive to the feelings of their subordinates than to superiors. Twelve percent of people who experience rude behavior quit their jobs to avoid the perpetrators. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported losing work time worrying. Nearly half of respondents said they are sometimes angry at work. Twenty-two percent of respondents deliberately decreased their work efforts as a result of rudeness. One out of six employees reported being so angered by coworkers that they felt like hitting those coworkers.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–20 Understanding and Maintaining Employee Morale (cont’d) The Downside of Downsizing and Outsourcing on MoraleThe Downside of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Morale Helping employees cope with the aftereffects of downsizing: Providing early and ample communication with clear and specific details concerning which jobs have been eliminated and, more important, why they have been eliminated. Working with surviving employees to develop the new short- term objectives that will help those employees focus on activities and targets over which they have some control.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–21 Assessing Employee Morale Key Indicators of Employee Morale:Key Indicators of Employee Morale: Job performance levels Tardiness and absenteeism Changes in the amount of waste or scrap Employee complaints Accident and safety records Changes in daily working relationships
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–22 Assessing Employee Morale (cont’d) Exit InterviewsExit Interviews Interviews with individuals who leave a firm that are used to assess morale and the reasons for employee turnover. Attitude SurveyAttitude Survey Survey of employee opinions about major aspects of organizational life that is used to assess morale. Organizational Development (OD)Organizational Development (OD) Meetings with groups under the guidance of a neutral conference leader to solve problems that are hindering organizational effectiveness.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–23 The Supervisor’s Counseling Role CounselingCounseling An effort by the supervisor to deal with on-the-job performance problems that are the result of an employee’s personal problems. Counseling InterviewCounseling Interview Nondirective interview during which the supervisor listens empathetically and encourages the employee to discuss problems openly and to develop solutions.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–24 FIGURE 12.3 Steps in the counseling process.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–25 Programs for Employees With Personal and Work-related Problems Family and Medical Leave ProvisionsFamily and Medical Leave Provisions Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 Requires employers with fifty or more employees to grant up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave to workers for various reasons, particularly serious medical problems experienced by employees or their families, and the births or adoptions of children.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–26 Programs for Employees With Personal and Work-related Problems (cont’d) Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) Are company programs to help employees with personal or work-related problems that are interfering with job performance. Include: Alcoholism and substance abuse Marriage, child-care, and family problems Financial questions Other personal, emotional, or psychological problems that may be interfering with job performance.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–27 Programs for Employees With Personal and Work-related Problems (cont’d) Wellness ProgramWellness Program Is an organized effort by a firm to help employees get and stay healthy to remain productive. Paid Time Off (PTO) ProgramPaid Time Off (PTO) Program Eliminates the distinction between vacation, sick, and personal days by granting employees paid time off (PTO). Allows employees to establish a personal time-off bank that they can use for any reason they want.
© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved. 12–28 KEY TERMS Attitude surveyAttitude survey Collaborative workplaceCollaborative workplace Command groupCommand group CounselingCounseling Counseling interviewCounseling interview Employee assistance programs (EAPs)Employee assistance programs (EAPs) Exit interviewsExit interviews Friendship groupFriendship group Hawthorne StudiesHawthorne Studies IncivilityIncivility MoraleMorale Organizational development (OD)Organizational development (OD) Paid time off (PTO) programPaid time off (PTO) program Special-interest groupSpecial-interest group Synergistic effectSynergistic effect Task group or cross-functional teamTask group or cross-functional team TeamworkTeamwork Virtual teamVirtual team Wellness programWellness program Workplace spiritualityWorkplace spirituality Workplace violenceWorkplace violence
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