Presentation on theme: "Jeffersonian Republicanism Ideology: Wanted a democratic government—power in the hands of the people Thought all “educated” males should be able."— Presentation transcript:
Jeffersonian Republicanism Ideology: Wanted a democratic government—power in the hands of the people Thought all “educated” males should be able to vote not just wealthy people Glorified the independent yeoman farmer Thought cities/industry made people dependent on others As little government involvement as possible in order to prevent chaos/anarchy More power for the states, less for the federal govt (states rights) Very narrow interpretation of the Constitution Who would be a Republican? Farmers/farming interests—South and the West new region Generally the poor/middle class, but also wealthy people in the South
Compare and Contrast: Republican vs Federalist RepublicanFederalist South and WestNew England, northern parts of the Middle States Farmers, rural areasMerchants, factory owners, cities Poor/middle classMiddle class and upper class Friendship with FranceFriendship with Britain Narrow interpretation of Const.Broad Interpretation of Const. No bankYes bank No standing army, small navyStanding army, larger navy States rightsNational government power
Revolution of 1800 Jefferson won a close election: defeats Adams 73-65 Aaron Burr vice president Why a revolution? No blood or violence Major change in the philosophies of the governing party Also, 1 st peaceful exchange of power between 2 rival administrations 1 st President to be inaugurated in Washington D.C. (1801) After 1801 the Republicans controlled the Presidency, the House of Representatives, and the Senate, but not the federal courts, why?
Jefferson’s Policies: Really a Revolution? Jefferson didn’t completely get rid of Federalist Policies but he did change a lot of things What stayed? Hamilton’s tariffs, and debt repayment policies Most federalists who worked for the government The national bank What got reversed? Idea of a “permanent debt” to secure the loyalty of the wealthy Excise Tax on Whiskey Alien and Sedition Acts Army pretty much eliminated, navy reduced in size
Jefferson’s 1 st Term: 1800-1804 Largely successful Barbary Pirates War 1801-1805 Louisiana Purchase 1803 France at first tried to colonize it, gave up, sold land to US for $15 million Lewis and Clark expedition 1803-1805 Problems with the purchase Where in the Constitution does it say President or Congress has the power to buy land and add it to the United States? People in New England not happy, why?
The Courts and Jefferson: Marbury v. Madison and the Aaron Burr Trial Marbury v. Madison 1803—Judicial Review Supreme Court Case Supreme Court could overturn federal laws IF those laws were judged to violate the Constitution Aaron Burr Trial Tried to set up his own country in the southwest, arrested charged with treason Put on trial but found not guilty Established the precedent of a very strict interpretation/definition of treason
Jefferson’s 2 nd Term: 1804-1808 Jefferson won reelection easily in 1804 2 nd term dominated by problems with France and Britain Background: Napoleonic Wars Problems with US trade in the Atlantic Ocean Jefferson’s problem: can’t go to war with France and/or Britain, but need to make them stop Solution: Embargo Act 1807 All trade between the US and Europe prohibited Who was this designed to hurt? Who would be upset with this in the US? Unsuccessful: hurt the US more than Britain or France Repealed in 1809 just before Jefferson left office
James Madison and the War of 1812 James Madison (Jefferson’s Sec. of State, author of Const.) elected President in 1808 Problems with France/Britain seizing US ships remained Other problems: British supplying Indians with money/weapons in Canada Impressment of US sailors by the British US settlers in the West wanted to take over British Canada (War Hawks) French repealed their trade restrictions Britain didn’t* US declared War on Britain in 1812 (1812-1814)
War of 1812: Problems US not prepared for war Army/Navy had been slashed by Republicans Only 6,700 men in the army Only 16 ocean-going ships in navy Finances not good, why? No more excise taxes Very little revenue from tariffs (embargo act=no trade) Nobody to lend government money (no National Bank) Very little US industry—Republicans had stressed farming—made it hard to produce wartime goods No good roads to transport men/supplies around the country
War of 1812 Some early successes at Sea—USS Constitution War went badly for the Americans especially at first Invasion of Canada a disastrous failure British blockade prevented US trade with foreign countries British took over Detroit, Chicago, large parts of the Northwest, and captured and burned Washington DC Some American successes Battle of Lake Erie, Battle of Lake Champlain, Battle of Fort McHenry (Baltimore, Star Spangled Banner) Battle of the Thames (in Canada) Indian leader Tecumseh killed Battle of New Orleans (1815)—Andrew Jackson defeated the British, saved the city Treaty of Ghent Christmas Eve 1814—War over “status quo ante bellum”—nothing resolved
Hartford Convention: the end of the Federalist Party Federalists upset with the war, upset with 16 years of Republican rule Met in Hartford 1814-1815 came up with a list of Constitutional Amendments that they wanted enacted: 2/3rds vote in Congress to declare war, or admit new states Elimination of the 3/5ths clause (slaves wouldn’t count at all) 1 term maximum for Presidents No back to back Presidents from the same state No more trade embargoes If their demands weren’t met..... secession?? During war time? Came to Washington with their demands January of 1815 What two events did they hear about when they got there? Hartford Convention made the Federalists look like traitors, party lost a lot of support, died out soon thereafter
Significance of the War of 1812 Increase in American nationalism—”We beat the British again!” Andrew Jackson became a hero—soon would become President (1828) Federalist Party on the way out (Hartford Convention) Republican Party/Madison began to support a lot of Federalist ideas: A new national bank A standing army and navy Tariffs to protect US industries Federal financing of roads and canals to ease transportation After the war there was really only 1 political party—the Republicans