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Jeffersonian Republicanism  Antifederalists  Democratic-Republicans  Republicans  Ideology:  Wanted a democratic government—power in the hands of.

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Presentation on theme: "Jeffersonian Republicanism  Antifederalists  Democratic-Republicans  Republicans  Ideology:  Wanted a democratic government—power in the hands of."— Presentation transcript:


2 Jeffersonian Republicanism  Antifederalists  Democratic-Republicans  Republicans  Ideology:  Wanted a democratic government—power in the hands of the people  Did not want all white males to vote, only the educated, but they thought any person could be educated (contrast with the Federalists)  Glorified the independent yeoman farmer  Thought cities/industry made people dependent on others  Classical liberals—as little government involvement as possible in order to prevent chaos/anarchy  More power for the states, less for the federal govt (states rights)  Very narrow interpretation of the Constitution

3 Republican Voters and Policies  Who would be a Republican?  Farmers/farming interests—South and the West  new region  Generally the poor/middle class, but also wealthy people in the South  Republican Policies  Strict construction of Constitution  No national bank  Limited role for federal govt—no funding of roads for example  No standing army, small navy  Low tariffs  Friendship with France  No alien or sedition acts  No excise taxes on whiskey

4 Compare and Contrast: Republican vs Federalist RepublicanFederalist South and WestNew England, northern parts of the Middle States Farmers, rural areasMerchants, factory owners, cities Poor/middle classMiddle class and upper class Friendship with FranceFriendship with Britain Narrow interpretation of Const.Broad Interpretation of Const. No bankYes bank No standing army, small navyStanding army, larger navy States rightsNational government power

5 Revolution of 1800  Jefferson wins a close election: defeats Adams 73-65  Aaron Burr vice president  Why a revolution?  No blood or violence  Major change in the philosophies of the governing party  Also, 1 st peaceful exchange of power between 2 rival administrations  1 st President to be inaugurated in Washington D.C. (1801)  After 1801 the Republicans controlled the Presidency, the House of Representatives, and the Senate, but not the federal courts, why?  Judiciary Act of 1801—Federalists “packed” the courts

6 Jefferson’s Policies: Really a Revolution?  No wholesale reversal of Federalist policies  Jefferson realized he had a divided country, didn’t want to totally alienate New England/other Federalist areas  Federalist policies (debt payment, tariffs, etc) were pretty effective  What stayed?  Hamilton’s tariffs, and debt repayment policies  Most federalists who worked for the government  The national bank  What got reversed?  Judiciary Act of 1801  Idea of a “permanent debt” to secure the loyalty of the wealthy  Excise Tax on Whiskey  Alien and Sedition Acts  Army pretty much eliminated, navy reduced in size

7 Jefferson’s 1 st Term: 1800-1804  Largely successful  Barbary Pirates War 1801-1805  US refused to pay additional bribe to Barbary Pirates  Jefferson sent Navy/Marines to attack Tripoli  Louisiana Purchase 1803  Western half of Louisiana Territory given to Spain after French and Indian War  Given from Spain to France during Napoleonic conquest of Spain early 1800s  France at first tried to colonize it again, gave up, sold land to US for $15 million  Lewis and Clark 1803-1805  Problems with the purchase  Where in the Constitution does it say President or Congress has the power to buy land and add it to the United States?  People in New England not happy, why?

8 The Courts and Jefferson: Marbury v. Madison and the Aaron Burr Trial  Marbury v. Madison 1803—Judicial Review  Judiciary Act of 1801 and the “Midnight Appointments”  Marbury had his commission signed by Adams, but it was never sealed and delivered by the Sec. of State  Madison (Jefferson’s new Sec. of State) found the commission but refused to deliver it  Marbury sued Madison in the Supreme Court to force him to deliver the commission (writ of mandamus)  Court dominated by Federalists—Chief Justice=John Marshall  Marbury deserved his commission, but the law that allowed him to sue Madison in the Supreme Court violated the Constitution— a law that violated the Constitution was not valid—it was voided by the Court=Judicial Review  Aaron Burr Trial  Tried to set up his own country in the southwest, arrested  During trial there weren’t two people who witnessed Burr commit an act of treason—found not guilty by the courts—a very strict interpretation of what treason was (high hurdle had to be cleared)

9 Jefferson’s 2 nd Term: 1804-1808  Jefferson won reelection easily in 1804  2 nd term dominated by problems with France and Britain  Background: Napoleonic Wars  France and Britain at war, each wanted to stop trade with the other, began to stop and seize US ships in the Atlantic Ocean  British began to impress US sailors— Chesapeake incident  Jefferson’s problem: can’t go to war with France and/or Britain, but need to make them stop  Solution: Embargo Act 1807  All trade between the US and Europe prohibited  Who was this designed to hurt?  Who would be upset with this in the US?  Unsuccessful: hurt the US more than Britain or France  Repealed in 1809 just before Jefferson left office

10 War of 1812  James Madison (Jefferson’s Sec. of State, author of Const.) elected President in 1808  Problems with France/Britain seizing US ships remained  Embargo Act replaced with:  Non-Intercourse Act—no US trade with just Britain or France  Macon’s Bill Number 2—whichever country dropped its trade restrictions first the US would legalize trade only with that country  Other problems:  British supplying Indians with money/weapons in Canada  Impressment of US sailors by the British  US settlers in the West wanted to take over British Canada (War Hawks)  French repealed their trade restrictions Britain didn’t* US declared War on Britain in 1812 (1812-1814)

11 War of 1812: Problems  US not prepared for war  Army had been slashed by Republicans—only 6,700 men  Navy well trained but only had 16 ocean-going ships  Finances not good  No more excise taxes  Embargo act had cut off trade so little revenue coming in through tariffs  No national bank (charter had expired in 1811 and was not renewed by the Republican Congress)  Major banks in New England/Northeast controlled by Federalists who opposed the war and were reluctant to lend to the government  Very little US industry—Republicans had stressed farming— made it hard to produce wartime goods  No good roads to transport men/supplies around the country

12 War of 1812  Some early successes at Sea—USS Constitution defeated the Guerriere  War went badly for the Americans especially at first  Invasion of Canada a disastrous failure  British blockade prevented US trade with foreign countries  British took over Detroit, Chicago, large parts of the Northwest, and captured and burned Washington DC  Some American successes  Battle of Lake Erie, Battle of Lake Champlain, Battle of Fort McHenry (Baltimore, Star Spangled Banner)  Battle of the Thames (in Canada) Indian leader Tecumseh killed  Battle of New Orleans (1815)—Andrew Jackson defeated the British, saved the city  Treaty of Ghent Christmas Eve 1814—War over “status quo ante bellum”—nothing resolved

13 Hartford Convention: the end of the Federalist Party  Federalists upset with the war, upset with 16 years of Republican rule  Met in Hartford 1814-1815 came up with a list of Constitutional Amendments that they wanted enacted:  2/3rds vote in Congress to declare war, or admit new states  Elimination of the 3/5ths clause (slaves wouldn’t count at all)  1 term maximum for Presidents  No back to back Presidents from the same state  No more trade embargoes  If their demands weren’t met..... secession?? During war time?  Came to Washington with their demands January of 1815  What two events did they hear about when they got there?  Hartford Convention mad the Federalists look like traitors, party lost a lot of support, died out soon thereafter

14 Significance of the War of 1812  Increase in American nationalism—”We beat the British again!”  Andrew Jackson became a hero—soon would become President (1828)  Federalist Party on the way out (Hartford Convention)  Republican Party/Madison had become “federalized” began to support:  A new national bank  A standing army and navy  Tariffs to protect US industries  Federal financing of roads and canals to ease transportation  Was really only 1 political party—the Republicans

15 Era of Good Feelings: 1816-1824  Period of time after the War of 1812 during James Monroe’s Presidency when there was an increase in nationalism and essentially only one functioning political party—Republican  Nationalism in domestic policy: the American System  Promote economic growth—a 2 nd national bank (Bank of the United States) 1816-1836  Protect US industries that had emerged during the War— higher protective tariffs  Help urge westward expansion and promote economic activity inside the United States—build roads and canals using federal govt money—internal improvements  Nationalism in foreign policy  Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819—treaty between US and Spain  Joint occupation of Oregon with Britain 1818  Monroe Doctrine 1823  Peaceful resolution of US-Canada (Britain) border

16 Nationalism in the Courts: John Marshall  Supreme Court, led by John Marshall decided a number of cases during the Era of Good Feelings which helped to increase the power of the federal government and established a broad interpretation of the Constitution  Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819—court ruled that contracts between the state and private individuals could not be undone by the state, even if a majority of people wanted that  McCulloch v. Maryland 1819—national bank ruled constitutional, broad interpretation of necessary and proper clause  Gibbons v. Ogden 1824—the national government was supreme in regulating interstate and international commerce not the states

17 Problems under the Surface  Sectional differences beginning to emerge  Different sections had competing interests one section’s gain was another’s loss  North, South, West  National Bank—North liked, South/West hated  Tariffs—North liked, West split, South hated  Internal improvements—North liked, West liked, South hated  Slavery—North hated, West split, South in favor  Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820) 1820  Missouri wanted to join US as a slave state  This would upset the free-slave balance in the Senate  No other territory was ready to be admitted  Also, Missouri=the first new state completely inside the Louisiana Purchase territory—what precedent would that set?  Missouri admitted as slave state, Maine broken off from Mass. admitted as free state  Line drawn across Missouri’s southern border—no slavery above that line in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase (except for Missouri)

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