2Outline of Presentation Aircraft ComponentsMaterial use in Airframe ConstructionExample of Material use in Airframe ConstructionFuselage Structure- Truss Type- Pratt Truss- Warren Truss- Monocoque- Semi-MonocoqueBasic Structure Member TermsWing StructureEmpennage StructurePower Plant- Wing Pod Mount-Fuselage MountLanding Gear Structure
3Aircraft Components A. Fuselage B. Wings C. Empenage or Tail D. Power PlantE. Landing Gear orUndercarriage
5Fuselage Main body of airplane Pilot, passengers, & cargo compartments Generally constructed in two or more sectionsCarries accessories and other equipmentsIncludes numerous access doors, inspection plates, landing wheel wells, and other openings
6WING Airfoils attached to each side of the fuselage Main lifting surfacesVarious design size and shapeMay be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of thefuselage- High-wing, mid-wing, and low-wingThe number of wings can also vary- Monoplanes, biplanes
7Empennage Known as tail section Consist of Vertical Stabilizer Rudder Horizontal StabilizerElevators
8Power PlantA unit or machine that converts chemical energy contained in the fuel to thrust force. Thrust force is essential for moving the airplane forward and producing lift force. With the piston engine, the propeller is used to convert torque at engine shaft to thrust. With the jet engine, the jet engine output is the thrust force.
9Landing Gear Located underneath the fuselage with shock strut Fixed / RetractableProvides means of takeoff, landing & taxiingTri- cycle –Conventional typeFloating gear for seaplane /ski- equipped for ice surface landing etc..
10Material use in Airframe Construction Airframe Materials Properties- High Strength to Weight ratio- Light weight- Corrosion Resistant- Should be non flammable- High quality
11Example of Material use in Airframe Construction WOOD (Spruce, صنوبر)STEEL & ITS ALLOYS (Strong )ALUMINIUM & ITS ALLOY (Commonly used)TITANIUM ALLOYS (Heat Barriers)MAGNESIUM ALLOYS (3 times lighter than AL)PLASTICS & COMPOSITE MATERIAL
13TRUSS TYPEMost early aircraft used this technique with wood and wire trusses and this type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. The truss type fuselage frame is assembled with members forming a rigid frame e.g. beams, bar, tube etc… Primary members of the truss are 4 longerons. There are two types of truss structure.- PRATT TRUSS- WARREN TRUSS
14PRATT TRUSS Early days Wooden or metal structure Great weight Difficult to streamlineBox with tubular longerons + vertical membersDiagonal members of tubing or solid rods
15WARREN TRUSS Longerons + only Diagonal Members Force transfer to every others structureCapable to carry tension + compressionReduce amount of webs workMore space , strength , rigidityBetter streamline
16Warren Truss Structure of an airplane Four longeronsStringersWarren Truss Structure of an airplane
17MONOCOQUEIn this method, the exterior surface of the fuselage is also the primary structure. A typical early form of this was built using molded plywood.A later form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin, instead of plywood, as the skin.
18SEMI-MONOCOQUEThis is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. First, a series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture, or jig. These frames are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum, attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives. Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique, but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are then joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage.
21Basic Structure Member Terms Vertical MembersFormersFrameRingBulkheadLongitudinal MembersLongeronsStringers
22Wing StructureMany high-wing airplanes have external braces, or wing struts, which transmit the flight and landing loads through the struts to the main fuselage structure. Since the wing struts are usually attached approximately halfway out on the wing, this type of wing structure is called semi-cantilever. A few high-wing and most low-wing airplanes have a full cantilever wing designed to carry the loads without external struts. The principal structural parts of the wing are spars, ribs, and stringers. These are reinforced by trusses, I-beams, tubing, or other devices, including the skin. The wing ribs determine the shape and thickness of the wing (airfoil).
23Wing StructureIn most modern airplanes, the fuel tanks either are an integral part of the wing structure, or consist of flexible containers mounted inside of the wing. Attached to the rear, or trailing, edges of the wings are two types of control surfaces referred to as ailerons and flaps. Ailerons extend from about the midpoint of each wing outward toward the tip and move in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the airplane to roll. Flaps extend outward from the fuselage to near the midpoint of each wing. The flaps are normally flush with the wing´s surface during cruising flight. When extended, the flaps move simultaneously downward to increase the lifting force of the wing for takeoffs and landings.
25Empennage StructureThe correct name for the tail section of an airplane is empennage. The empennage includes the entire tail group, consisting of fixed surfaces such as the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal stabilizer. The movable surfaces include the rudder, the elevator, and one or more trim tabs. A second type of empennage design does not require an elevator. Instead, it incorporates a one-piece horizontal stabilizer that pivots from a central hinge point. This type of design is called a stabilator, and is moved using the control stick, just as you would the elevator.
26Empennage StructureThe rudder is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer.During flight, it is used to move the airplane´s nose left and right. The rudder is used in combination with the ailerons for turns during flight. The elevator, which is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer, is used to move the nose of the airplane up and down during flight.Trim tabs are small, movable portions of the trailing edge of the control surface. These movable trim tabs, which are controlled from the cockpit, reduce control pressures. Trim tabs may be installed on the ailerons, the rudder, and/or the elevator.
29Empennage Structure of an airplane SparRibsStringersSkinStabilatorEmpennage Structure of an airplane
30Landing Gear Structure The landing gear is the principal support of the airplane when parked, taxiing, taking off, or when landing. The most common type of landing gear consists of wheels, but airplanes can also be equipped with floats for water operations, or skis for landing on snow. The landing gear consists of three wheels — two main wheels and a third wheel positioned either at the front or rear of the airplane. Landing gear employing a rearmounted wheel is called conventional landing gear.
31Landing Gear Structure Airplanes with conventional landing gear are sometimes referred to as tail wheel airplanes. When the third wheel is located on the nose, it is called nose wheel, and the design is referred to as a tricycle gear. A steerable nose wheel or tail wheel permits the airplane to be controlled throughout all operations while on the ground.
32Power PlantThe power plant usually includes both the engine and the propeller. The primary function of the engine is to provide the power to turn the propeller. It also generates electrical power, provides a vacuum source for some flight instruments, and in most single-engine airplanes, provides a source of heat for the pilot and passengers. The engine is covered by a cowling, or in the case of some airplanes, surrounded by a nacelle.The purpose of the cowling or nacelle is to streamline the flow of air around the engine and to help cool the engine by ducting air around the cylinders. The propeller, mounted on the front of the engine, translates the rotating force of the engine into a forward acting force called thrust that helps move the airplane through the air.
34Wing Pod MountCommonly used on commercial airplane since fuel is carried on wingLess noiseLift coefficient (CL max) is not as good as fuselage mountYawing moment effectGround clearance limitation higher gear strut
35Fuselage Mount Clean wing ,high CL Max , shorter take off. No ground clearance limitationLess yawing effectWeight penalty Aft Cg. and load distributionCabin Noise and Vibration