Presentation on theme: "Parts of an Aircraft and Propulsion Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Parts of an Aircraft and Propulsion Systems Gateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsParts of an Aircraft and Propulsion Systems
2 What is an Airplane? Aircraft Airplane More general term Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhat is an Airplane?AircraftMore general termRefers to any heavier-than-air object that isSupported by its own buoyancySupported by the action of air on its structuresAirplaneHeavier-than-air craft propelled by an engineUses aerodynamic surfaces (wings) to generate lift
3 Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhat is an Airplane?Every airplane is an aircraft, but not every aircraft is an airplane.Space shuttleGlidersHelicoptersSpace Shuttle – No engines for propulsionGliders – No enginesHelicopters – Aerodynamic surfaces are not fixed. They rotate.
4 Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhy So Many Types?Every modern aircraft is built for a specific purpose.Different altitudesDifferent speedsDifferent weight-carrying capacitiesDifferent performance
5 Why So Many Types? Jet fighters Passenger airplanes Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhy So Many Types?Jet fightersRelatively lightweightHighly maneuverable and very fastCarry small amount of weight, including fuelMust refuel on long flightsPassenger airplanesLarger, carry more weight, fly longer distancesLess maneuverable and slower
6 Why So Many Types? Wing types Parts of an Aircraft Gateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhy So Many Types?Wing typesThe characteristic that most readily identifies the type, performance, and purpose of an airplane is the shape of its wings.Each shape allows for premium performance at different altitudes, different speeds, and different loads which must be carried.
7 Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhy So Many Types?SpeedThe speed of sound is dependent on altitude and atmospheric conditionsMach is the term used to specify how many times the speed of sound an aircraft is travelingSubsonic: Less than Mach 1Transonic: Mach .9 to Mach 1.5Supersonic: All speeds above Mach 1Hypersonic: All speeds greater than Mach 5Another important discriminator between airplanes is speed.The suffix “sonic” refers to the speed of sound.Mach 1 is one times the speed of sound. Mach 2 is twice the speed of sound. Mach numbers less than 1 are speeds less than the speed of sound.Aircraft flying at hypersonic speeds can also be said to be flying at supersonic speeds.
8 Parts of an Airplane Five basic structural components Fuselage Wings Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsFive basic structural componentsFuselageWingsEmpennage (tail structures)Propulsion systemUndercarriage
9 Fuselage Main body structure Contains Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsFuselageMain body structureAll other components are attached to itContainsCockpit or flight deckPassenger compartmentCargo compartmentProduces a little lift, but can also produce a lot of drag
10 Wings Most important lift-producing part of the aircraft Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsMost important lift-producing part of the aircraftAlso carries the fuelDesigned so that the outer tips of the wings are higher than where the wings are attached to the fuselageCalled the dihedralHelps keep the airplane from rolling unexpectedly
11 Wings Parts of an Aircraft Gateway To Technology® Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWings
12 Wing Designs Straight Wing Found mostly on small, low-speed airplanes Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWing DesignsStraight WingFound mostly on small, low-speed airplanesGood lift at low speedsNot suited to high speedsCreates a lot of drag because the wing is perpendicular to the airflowProvides good, stable flightCheap and can be made lighter
13 Wing Designs Sweepback Used on most high-speed airplanes Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWing DesignsSweepbackUsed on most high-speed airplanesLess drag, but more unstable at low speedsAmount of sweep depends on the purpose of the airplaneCommercial airliner has moderate sweepHigh speed airplanes (e.g., fighters) have moderate sweepNo forward sweep wings are in mass productionA commercial airliner has less drag while maintaining stability at lower speeds.Fighters are not very stable at low speeds. They take off and descend for landing at a high rate of speed.
14 Wing Designs Delta Wings Looks like a large triangle from above Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWing DesignsDelta WingsLooks like a large triangle from aboveCan reach high speedsLanding speeds are very fastWing shape found on the supersonic transport Concord
15 Wing Designs Swing Wing Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWing DesignsSwing WingThis design combines the high lift characteristics of a straight wing with the ability of the sweepback wing to move at high speedsDuring landing and takeoff, wing swings into an almost straight positionDuring cruise, wing swings into a sweepbackHinges that enable wings to swing are very heavy
16 Wing Components Trailing edge equipped with flaps Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWing ComponentsTrailing edge equipped with flapsMove backward and downwardIncrease the area of the wing and the camber of the airfoilDifferent from the ailerons, also located on the trailing edge of the wingWhen an airplane lands, it is desirable to fly as slowly as possible. Ideally for landing, an airplane would have a large wing with a very cambered airfoil. However, airfoils designed to perform well at slow speeds are not good for flying at faster speeds, and vice versa. Airplane designers have developed a set of features that allow the pilot to increase the wing area and change the airfoil shape to compensate for this.
17 Empennage Also known as the tail assembly Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsEmpennageAlso known as the tail assemblyProvides stability and controlTwo main partsVertical stabilizer (fin) to which the rudder is attachedHorizontal stabilizer to which the elevators are attached
18 Undercarriage Also known as the landing gear, which is made up of Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsUndercarriageAlso known as the landing gear, which is made up ofStrutsWheelsBrakesCan be fixed or retractableMany small airplanes have fixed landing gear which increases drag but keeps the airplane lightweight. Larger, faster, and more complex aircraft have retractable landing gear that can accommodate the increased weight. The advantage to retractable landing gear is that the drag is greatly reduced when the gear is retracted. When you fly on a commercial airliner, you will notice that the pilot retracts the landing gear very soon after the airplane leaves the ground. This helps to decrease drag as the airplane ascends.
19 Controls Parts of an Aircraft Gateway To Technology® Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsControlsWhen a plane is in flight, there are three imaginary axes of rotation. These lines run through the weight center (or center of gravity) of the plane. The airplane’s rotation around the y axis is called yaw; rotation around the x axis is called pitch, and rotation around the z axis is called roll.
20 Controls Roll is controlled by the ailerons Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsControlsRoll is controlled by the aileronsUsed to raise and lower the wingsTurning the control wheel left causes the left aileron to raise and lowers the right aileron.The plane rolls left.Turning the control wheel right causes the right aileron to raise and lowers the left aileron.The plane rolls right.
21 Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsControlsPitch is controlled by the elevators on the tail of the plane.They are controlled by the control wheel (i.e., stick).If the wheel or stick is pulled back, the elevators go up, causing the nose to point up and the plane to climb.If the wheel or stick is pushed forward, the elevators go down, causing the nose to point down and the plane to lose altitude.
22 Controls Yaw is controlled by the rudder. Parts of an AircraftGateway To Technology®Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsControlsYaw is controlled by the rudder.The right foot pedal turns the rudder to the right.This action causes the tail to yaw to the left and the nose to yaw to the right.To smoothly bank a plane or to turn it left or right, the pilot uses the ailerons and the rudder together.
23 Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemA machine that produces thrust to push an object forwardThe amount of thrust depends on the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the gasOn airplanes, thrust is usually generated through some application of Newton's third law of action and reaction. A gas, or working fluid, is accelerated by the engine, and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the engine.
24 Airplane Propulsion Systems Gateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsAirplane Propulsion SystemsPropellerTurbine (jet) engineRamjet orScramjetRocket Planes
25 Why Are There Different Types of Engines? Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsWhy Are There Different Types of Engines?Newton’s 1st LawObjects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless something pushes or pulls on the object.Therefore:Thrust from the propulsion system must balance the drag when the airplane is cruising.Thrust from the propulsion system must exceed the drag for the airplane to accelerate.You must have the correct type of engine (propulsion system) to provide the correct amount of thrust.
26 Aircraft Motion Propulsion Systems Gateway To Technology Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsAircraft Motion
27 Propulsion System Piston Engines and Propellers Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemPiston Engines and PropellersRemember that internal combustion (gasoline) engines require oxygen to ignite the fuel, and therefore need to fly at lower altitudesUsed most commonly on smaller aircraftThey generally fly slower, and at lower altitudes
28 Propulsion System Piston Engines and Propellers Propulsion Systems Gateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemPiston Engines and PropellersA propeller system takes the rotary motion from a motor and converts it into thrust. It has multiple blades attached to a central shaft, and works like a rotating screw or wing. The blades are often airfoil shaped, thus utilizing both Bernoulli’s principle and Newton’s third law to produce forward motion.
29 Airliners and Cargo Planes Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsAirliners and Cargo PlanesSpend most of the time in a cruise stateHigh engine efficiency and low fuel usage more important than excess thrustTurboprop and turbofan propulsion used on airliners and cargo planesSince thrust depends on both the amount of gas moved and the velocity, we can generate high thrust by accelerating a large mass of gas by a small amount, or by accelerating a small mass of gas by a large amount. Because of the aerodynamic efficiency of propellers and fans, it is more fuel efficient to accelerate a large mass by a small amount. That is why we find high bypass fans and turboprops on cargo planes and airliners.
30 Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemsJet propulsion is similar to the release of an inflated balloon.
31 Propulsion Systems Turbojet First really useful jet engine built Gateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemsTurbojetFirst really useful jet engine builtThe turbojet was the first really useful jet engine to be built. The air flows into the engine through the air intak. The design of the inlet makes the air slow down and also raises the pressure. The air then goes through the compressor where sets of blades compress the air even more, greatly raising the pressure. The air then enters the combustion chamber where the fuel is added and ignited. The very hot, high pressure air rushes past the turbine blades, making them spin very fast. The turbine blades are connected back to the compressor blades by a shaft. The turbine blades take some of the energy from the air and return it to the compressor. The hot, high pressure air that gets past the turbine "jets" out the exhaust nozzle, thrusting the engine forward.Turbojets are very inefficient and noisy at subsonic speeds. Most modern plans use turbofans and turboprops.
32 Propulsion Systems Turbofan Turboprop Gateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsPropulsion SystemsTurbofanAdds a large set of fan blades at the front of the inletTurbopropThe fan from turbofan is replaced with a propellerThe fan works much like a propeller, thrusting the engine forward and pushing a large amount of air backwards. As the air is pushed back by the fan, some of it goes into the engine and some bypasses the engine. The engine that sits behind the fan is basically a turbojet. The air that goes into this engine receives the same treatment as the air that goes through the turbojet.The turboprop engine is essentially a turbofan engine where the fan is replaced by a propeller. The propeller is placed outside of the inlet.
33 Fighter Planes and Hypersonic Aircraft Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsFighter Planes and Hypersonic AircraftRequire high excess thrust to accelerate quickly and overcome high drag associated with high speedsHigh thrust is more important than engine efficiency
34 Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsA ramjet is a form of jet engine which uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air, without a rotary compressor. Ramjets cannot provide thrust at zero airspeed, and therefore, cannot move a plane from standstill. They require a forward speed of at least half the speed of sound (Mach 0.5)A scramjet or” super combustion ramjet” uses the same principles as the ramjet. However, the minimum functional speed, requires acceleration by other means to hypersonic speed before the scramjet can become active. Ramjets slow the incoming air to a subsonic speed within the combustor. Scramjets require the airflow through the engine to be at hypersonic speed. Both function best at hypersonic (above Mach 3) speeds.NASA is currently testing the X-43 at speeds of Mach 10.
35 Rocket Powered Airplanes Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsRocket Powered AirplanesUses a rocket engine for propulsionHas higher speedsPropels only for a short period of timeAlso known as a rocket plane, it is an aircraft that uses a rocket for propulsion, sometimes in addition to air-breathing jet engines (known as Jet Assisted Take Off). They can fly at much faster speeds than a jet aircraft of similar size, but only work for a few minutes, followed by a glide. Because they are powered by a rocket which does not need oxygen from the atmosphere, they are good for very high altitude flight. They also accelerate faster, and therefore have shorter takeoffs.Unusual launch configurationsFrom another planeVertically – nose in the air and tail to the ground
36 Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsRocket PropulsionEngine pushes itself forward or upward by producing thrustA rocket engine uses only propellant carried within itA rocket can operate in outer space, where there is almost no airUnlike a jet engine, which draws in outside air, a rocket engine uses only the substances carried within it.Click on Liftoff to show video of rocket launch.
37 3 – 2 – 1 Liftoff! Propulsion Systems Gateway To Technology Unit 4– Lesson 4.2– Aeronautics3 – 2 – 1 Liftoff!
38 How Do Rocket Engines Work? Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsHow Do Rocket Engines Work?Newton’s 3rd Law:For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.Rocket engines generate thrust by putting a gas under pressure.The gas escaping the rocket is called exhaust.As the rocket pushes the exhaust backward, the exhaust pushes the rocket forward.The vast majority of rockets are chemical rockets. The two most common types of chemical rockets are solid-propellant rockets and liquid-propellant rockets. Engineers have tested a third type of chemical rocket, called a hybrid rocket, that combines liquid and solid propellants. Electric rockets have propelled space probes and maneuvered orbiting satellites. Researchers have designed experimental nuclear rockets.
39 Propulsion SystemsGateway To TechnologyUnit 4– Lesson 4.2– AeronauticsImage ResourcesMicrosoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved September 10, 2008, fromNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). Beginner’s guide to propulsion. Retrieved June 23, 2009, fromNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). NASA TV Video Gallery. Retrieved June 23, 2009, fromNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). NASA – A closer look at the X-43 mission. Retrieved June 23, 2009, fromNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2007). NASA – Rocket. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from