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Airplane Components and Systems Lesson 1. Introduction Who is this instructor? Who is this instructor? Experience Experience Goals Goals Fun Fun Who are.

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Presentation on theme: "Airplane Components and Systems Lesson 1. Introduction Who is this instructor? Who is this instructor? Experience Experience Goals Goals Fun Fun Who are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Airplane Components and Systems Lesson 1

2 Introduction Who is this instructor? Who is this instructor? Experience Experience Goals Goals Fun Fun Who are you? Who are you? What do you do for fun? What do you do for fun? Any past flying experience? Any past flying experience? What are your goals? What are your goals?

3 Objective The objective of this lesson is to familiarize you with the airplane’s components and systems. You will be able to understand how they function, including the aircraft’s engine and instruments. The objective of this lesson is to familiarize you with the airplane’s components and systems. You will be able to understand how they function, including the aircraft’s engine and instruments.

4 Elements Airplane Components Airplane Components Airplane Engine and Propellers Airplane Engine and Propellers Ignition System Ignition System Fuel System Fuel System Flight Instruments Flight Instruments

5 Airplane Components

6 Fuselage An aircraft’s main body structure which houses the flight crew, passengers, and cargo and to which the wings, tail and, in most single-engined airplanes, engines are attached. An aircraft’s main body structure which houses the flight crew, passengers, and cargo and to which the wings, tail and, in most single-engined airplanes, engines are attached.

7 Wings An airfoil extending from the fuselage of an airplane, whose principal function is providing lift. An airfoil extending from the fuselage of an airplane, whose principal function is providing lift.

8 How do wings work? Bernoulli’s Principle! Bernoulli’s Principle! Wings have a curved upper surface (camber) that causes air to flow faster over the top than under the bottom of the wing. This causes a lower pressure on the upper part of the wing and higher pressure on the lower side of the wing. Wings have a curved upper surface (camber) that causes air to flow faster over the top than under the bottom of the wing. This causes a lower pressure on the upper part of the wing and higher pressure on the lower side of the wing.

9 Parts of a Wing Ailerons – the movable area of a wing that controls roll of an aircraft by working opposite one another. Ailerons – the movable area of a wing that controls roll of an aircraft by working opposite one another. Controlled by yoke or stick. Controlled by yoke or stick. Flaps – a movable part of a wing set at the trailing edge and used to increase lift and/or drag by changing the camber of the wing. Flaps – a movable part of a wing set at the trailing edge and used to increase lift and/or drag by changing the camber of the wing.

10 Empennage The tail assembly of an aircraft, including the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, elevators, and rudder. The tail assembly of an aircraft, including the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, elevators, and rudder.

11 Elevator Movable flap connected to the horizontal stabilizer. When moved upwards it pitches the nose up and tail down (climb) and when the elevator is moved downward it pitches the nose down and tail up (dive). Movable flap connected to the horizontal stabilizer. When moved upwards it pitches the nose up and tail down (climb) and when the elevator is moved downward it pitches the nose down and tail up (dive). Controlled by yoke or stick. Controlled by yoke or stick.

12 Rudder Movable flap connected to the vertical stabilizer. Controls the yawing movement (left and right) of the aircraft. Movable flap connected to the vertical stabilizer. Controls the yawing movement (left and right) of the aircraft. Controlled by rudder pedals. Controlled by rudder pedals.

13 Landing Gear Tricycle – has a nosewheel and normally rests with the tail in the air and nose on the ground. Tricycle – has a nosewheel and normally rests with the tail in the air and nose on the ground. Conventional – also known as taildragger, it rests with the tail on the ground. Conventional – also known as taildragger, it rests with the tail on the ground.

14 Brake Systems Most training aircraft use hydraulically actuated, disc type brakes that are controlled independently. Most training aircraft use hydraulically actuated, disc type brakes that are controlled independently.

15 Airplane Engine and Propeller

16 Reciprocating Engines Carbureted - Mixes fuel with air and injects into cylinder. Chance of icing (20-70 degrees Fahrenheit). Carbureted - Mixes fuel with air and injects into cylinder. Chance of icing (20-70 degrees Fahrenheit). Fuel Injected – Injects fuel into cylinder directly. Small chance of icing. Fuel Injected – Injects fuel into cylinder directly. Small chance of icing. Oil System Oil System Air Cooled Air Cooled

17 Propellers Fixed Pitch – blade is at fixed angle. Fixed Pitch – blade is at fixed angle. Constant Speed – blade changes through a governor to keep it rotating at a constant RPM. This optimizes the propeller for all parts of flight. Constant Speed – blade changes through a governor to keep it rotating at a constant RPM. This optimizes the propeller for all parts of flight.

18 Ignition System Magnetos Magnetos Provide spark to spark plugs Provide spark to spark plugs Self-Sustaining Self-Sustaining Dual-Systems Dual-Systems Provide reliability in case of a failure Provide reliability in case of a failure Better performance from dual ignition Better performance from dual ignition

19 Fuel System Most training aircraft have gravity fed systems with an engine driven or electric pump for backup. Most training aircraft have gravity fed systems with an engine driven or electric pump for backup. Mixture controls amount of fuel going to the engine. Mixture controls amount of fuel going to the engine. Throttle controls engine power Throttle controls engine power Prop control, controls prop RPM Prop control, controls prop RPM

20 Fuel Types Not part of the airplane but just as important! Not part of the airplane but just as important! 80/87 - Red 80/87 - Red 100/130 - Green 100/130 - Green 100 LL - Blue 100 LL - Blue Jet A – Clear to Straw Colored Jet A – Clear to Straw Colored

21 Flight Instruments

22 Pitot/Static Airspeed – Ram air pressure versus static pressure. Airspeed – Ram air pressure versus static pressure. Altimeter – Static pressure versus aneroid wafer. Altimeter – Static pressure versus aneroid wafer. Vertical Speed Indicator – Static pressure versus calibrated leak. Vertical Speed Indicator – Static pressure versus calibrated leak.

23 Gyroscopic Instruments Vacuum System Vacuum System Attitude Indicator Attitude Indicator Heading Indicator Heading Indicator Electric System Electric System Turn Coordinator Turn Coordinator

24 Magnetic Compass Subject to errors from: Subject to errors from: Variation Variation Deviation Deviation Magnetic Dip Magnetic Dip Northerly Turning Error (UNOS) Northerly Turning Error (UNOS) Accelleration Error (ANDS) Accelleration Error (ANDS)

25 Summary Airplane Components Airplane Components Airplane Engines and Propellers Airplane Engines and Propellers Ignition System Ignition System Fuel System Fuel System Flight Instruments Flight Instruments

26 Questions Any questions or comments? Any questions or comments?


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