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Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training

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1 Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training
INTRODUCE yourself; briefly speak to your related background. SAY welcome to NAHB Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training. Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training

2 Disclaimer This material was produced under grant number
SH F-24 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. This presentation is intended to discuss Federal Regulations only - your individual State requirements may be more stringent as many states operate their own state OSHA and they may have adopted construction standards that are different from information presented in this training. If you live in a state with an OSHA approved state plan, you should contact your local administrator for further information on the standards applicable in your state. These materials are meant for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the thoroughness of the presentation. This material was produced under the Susan Harwood training grant number SH F-24 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

3 Disclaimer, cont. It is not the intent to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address hazard awareness in the residential construction (i.e. home building) industry, and to recognize the overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces. Photos shown in this presentation may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA/safety requirements. No legal advice is offered or implied, and no attorney-client relationship is intended or established. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required the services of a competent professional person should be sought. It is the responsibility of the employer and its employees to comply with all pertinent OSHA/safety rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work.

4 Introduction Falls from scaffolds and ladders are a leading cause of serious and fatal injuries in residential construction. The goals of this course are to help you: understand how to correct or eliminate fall hazards on your job sites related to scaffold and ladder use understand the OSHA scaffold and ladder safety requirements Falls from scaffolds and ladders are among the leading causes of fatal injuries in residential construction. Falls from scaffolds and ladders also represent a significant portion of the serious injuries that occur in the industry.

5 Introduction, cont. The course is based on the NAHB-OSHA Scaffold Safety Handbook, Scaffold Safety Video, Fall Protection Handbook and Fall Protection Video. Participants can use the information from this seminar to: Provide training to employees Implement a ladder and scaffold safety program The fall protection training course is based on the NAHB-OSHA fall protection handbook and fall protection video. Each of these items have been included as a takeaway item from the course. You can use the handbook and video to conduct toolbox safety talks, as guide to implementing a fall protection plan, and as a resource while on the jobsite.

6 Course Objectives Identify the importance of preventing falls from ladders and scaffolds. Recognize fall hazards associated with ladder and scaffold use. Identify OSHA requirements for ladders, stairways, and scaffolds. Identify work practices for using ladders and scaffolds safely. By completing this course, you will be able to: 1. Identify the importance of preventing falls from ladders and scaffolds. 2. Recognize fall hazards associated with ladder and scaffold use. 3. Identify OSHA requirements for ladders, stairways, and scaffolds. Identify work practices for using ladders and scaffolds safely.

7 Course Agenda Section 1: Overview Section 2: Ladder Safety
Section 3: Scaffold Safety Section 4: Group Workshop Section 5: Post Test and Review This course consists of five instructional sections. Section 1: Overview of Training Program Section 2: Ladder Safety Section 3: Scaffold Safety Section 4: Group Workshop Section 5: Post Test and Review

8 Section 1: Overview In this section we will review:
The importance of ladder and scaffold safety Fatality statistics from the NAHB Fatality Study Inspection and citation data from OSHA Actual incidents involving ladders and scaffolds Section 1: Overview

9 Why is Preventing Falls from Ladders and Scaffolds Important?
Falls continue to be the leading cause of fatalities in residential construction. Falls (602) were responsible for 45% of residential construction fatalities from 2003 to 2006. 135 (22%) were falls from ladders. 89 (15%) were falls from scaffolding. Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy )

10 Fatalities by Event or Exposure: Residential Construction
Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy )

11 Fall Fatalities: Residential Construction
Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy )

12 Most Frequently Cited Serious Violations In Construction - 2007
Top Citations Fall protection – Residential construction 6’ or more Fall protection - Unprotected sides & edges Head protection Scaffolds - Fall protection Aerial Lifts - Body belt and lanyard Standard & Subpart Fall hazards training program Portable ladders 3 feet above landing surface This table identifies the most frequently cited OSHA standards for Of the top 10 citations for this time period, six (6) are related to scaffolds and ladders. NOTE: Explain that aerial lifts are included in the scaffold regulation. Scaffolds - Access Scaffolds - Platform construction Training for employees using scaffolds

13 OSHA: Scaffold and Ladder Citations
Plastering Contractor fined $106,200 for exposing employees to fall hazards while working on a scaffold without using fall protection equipment. Roofing Contractor fined $61,800 following an OSHA inspection for exposing employees to fall hazards including the use of a ladder that did not extend 3 ft. beyond the landing surface.

14 OSHA Fall Protection Requirements
Subpart L (g) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10’ (3.1M) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to a lower level. Subpart X – Ladders Fall protection is not required for workers climbing or working on portable ladders. Subpart X – Stairways Stairways having four (4) or more risers or rising more than 30 inches must be equipped with at least on handrail; and one stairrail system along each unprotected side or edge. Inform participants that OSHA has various requirements that address providing fall protection for workers. The next slide addresses the requirements of Subpart M – Fall Protection.

15 OSHA Fall Protection Requirements cont.
Subpart M (b)(13) Residential construction. Each employee engaged in residential construction activities 6’ or more above lower levels must be protected by conventional or alternative fall protection: Exemption: When the employer can demonstrate the protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard the employer must develop an alternative fall protection plan.

16 In the Headlines

17 In the Headlines, cont.

18 How do you prevent falls from ladders and scaffolds?
Implement a comprehensive safety program. Understand OSHA ladder and scaffold regulations. Train workers to identify hazards associated with ladder and scaffold use. Use safe work practices.

19 Section 2: Ladder and Stairway Safety
INTRODUCE yourself; briefly speak to your related background. SAY welcome to NAHB-OSHA Fall Protection. Section 2: Ladder and Stairway Safety

20 Learning Objectives: Section 2
Determine the proper ladder to use based on weight capacity and height. Calculate the proper pitch of extension ladders for proper set-up, and identify how to secure and stabilize ladders. Identify how to maintain a safe position when using a ladder. Identify safety requirements for protecting stairways.

21 Common Ladder Hazards Improper set-up
Portable ladders not 3 feet above landing surface Not securing ladder correctly Standing on the top two steps of a stepladder Overreaching when working from a ladder

22 Choosing the Right Ladder
Before stepping onto a ladder, think about these things: Duty rating of the ladder—what capacity can it hold? Height of the ladder—too short or too tall? Condition of the ladder and instructions unique to the ladder selected.

23 Proper Duty Rating/Capacity
OSHA Requirement Ladders shall not be loaded beyond the maximum intended load for which they were built nor beyond their manufacturer's rated capacity.

24 Proper Duty Rating/Capacity, cont.
Select a ladder with the proper duty rating for your weight and the materials you are handling.

25 Extension Ladders 25

26 Proper Ladder Set-up Consider placement and pitch of the ladder.
Secure and stabilize the ladder.

27 Pitch Extension Ladders
Extension ladders should be used at a 4 to 1 pitch (1.2 to .3 m). For every 4 ft. (1.2 m) in height, the bottom of the ladder should be 1 ft. (.3 m) away from the structure. Example: 20 ft. (height) ÷ 4 ft. = 5 ft. pitch

28 Pitch Extension Ladders, cont.
Setting up extension ladders properly can reduce slip and overload hazards. A quick and easy way to determine if an extension ladder is properly set up is to: Place toes against ladder side rails Stand erect Extend arms straight out Palms of hands should touch top of rung at shoulder level

29 Proper Height Extension Ladders
When accessing another level, the ladder must extend at least 3ft. (0.9m) above the landing to provide a hand hold for getting on and off the ladder. 3 ft.

30 Proper Height for Extension Ladders, cont.
Choose the right ladder for the height you need to reach. Ladder Height (ft.) Maximum Reach (ft.)* Height to Gutter or Top Support Point+ 16 15 9 ft. max. 20 19 9-13 ft. 24 23 13-17 ft. 28 27 17-21 ft. 32 31 21-25 ft. 36 34 25-28 ft. 40 37 28-31 ft. *Assume a 5 ft.-6 in. person with a vertical reach of 12 in. +Support points for extension ladders reflect section overlap, ladder angle, or 3-ft. extension above roof line

31 Secure and Stabilize Ladders
Extension ladders should be secured at the top or bottom to prevent movement. The base of an extension ladder must be secured in place by using the safety feet on the ladder or other effective means.

32 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.

33 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.

34 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.

35 Loose Soil The spikes, or spurs, on the ladder safety feet allow for the ladder to be set up safely on loose soil to prevent slipping.

36 Step Ladders 36

37 Step Ladders Only use in the fully open position on firm level ground.
Do not use a stepladder that is folded or in a leaning position. Never sit/stand on the top two rungs. Consider work height when selecting a stepladder.

38 Step Ladders, cont. Stepladders are designed for use in an opened-and-locked position.

39 Step Ladders, cont. Do NOT use a stepladder that is folded or in a leaning position. This worker is using a stepladder in the folded, leaning position. This represents improper use of a stepladder and could possibly lead to injuries from the ladder failing.

40 Proper Height Stepladders
Choose a stepladder that is no more than 4ft. shorter than the height you want to Reach.

41 Maintain a Safe Position on Ladders
Face the ladder when ascending or descending. Maintain three points of contact at all times. Keep your body centered on the ladder. Never let your belt buckle pass either siderail.

42 Maintaining a Safe Position on a Ladder, cont.

43 Ladder Inspections Ladders must be inspected before each use.
Broken or weak ladders or ladders that are not stable must be marked or tagged as defective and taken out of service. Look for cracks and weak points. Competent person must periodically inspect ladders.

44 Ladder Inspection, cont.

45 Review the Safety Labels on the Ladder

46 Additional Safe Work Practices: Ladders
Extension ladders should not be separated to create two ladders. Keep the areas around the tops and bottoms of all ladders clear to prevent trip-and-fall hazards. Avoid setting ladders up in high traffic areas or barricade the area around ladder.

47 Additional Safe Work Practices: Ladders, cont.
Ladders must be kept free of oil, grease, and other slipping hazards. Consider using a rope to raise/lower materials instead of carrying items while climbing a ladder. Do NOT use metal or aluminum ladders near exposed energized electrical equipment. 47

48 Section 3: Scaffold Safety

49 Learning Objectives: Section 3
Identify general requirements for safely building and using scaffolds. Identify competent person responsibilities. How to access scaffolds safely. Determine proper fall protection including guardrails and personal fall arrest systems. Identify safety requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

50 Common Scaffold Hazards
No guardrails on scaffolds. Defective wood planks and inadequate planking overhang. Unsafe access to scaffold. Cross bracing not adequate. Inadequate footings. Bridging of scaffolds.

51 General Requirements Erect/dismantle all Scaffolds According to the Manufacturer's Instructions and Competent Persons (CP) Direction Capacity Must support 4x Intended Load Stable Footings Base Plate, Screw Jacks & Mudsills

52 General Requirements, cont.
Platforms at Least 18” Wide Ladder Jack, Pump Jack, Top Plate, and Roof Brackets Can Be 12” Wide Front edge of all platforms within 14” of face of work Exceptions: 3” for outrigger scaffolds 18” for plastering and lathing operations

53 Scaffold Capacity Scaffolds must be capable of supporting its own weight and at least 4x the expected load. Expected load includes: Workers Equipment Tools Materials

54 Scaffold Capacity, cont.
Scaffold Capacity = Expected Load x lbs of Workers 100 lbs of Tools lbs of Materials 600 lbs x 4 = 2,400 lbs

55 Base Plate & Mudsill Required

56 Proper Scaffold Base

57 Masonry Blocks & Bricks NOT Acceptable as Scaffold Base

58 Scaffold Platform Each platform on all working levels must be fully planked and secured to prevent movement. No more than a 1” space between decking/platform units and upright supports. Wood scaffold planks must be nominal 2” x 10”. Must be Scaffold Grade Planks or equivalent.

59 Scaffold Grade Plank Stamp

60 Planks with Visible Defects MUST NOT be Used
Planks with visible defects cannot be used as scaffold platforms. This includes extensive cracks or rotting. NOTE: Once scaffold planks have been used as mudsills, they must never be used for anything else. The point loading of the scaffold legs may have weakened the plank.

61 Scaffold Use Do NOT use objects (ladders, boxes, barrels, etc.) on top of scaffold platforms to increase height Planks Extend 6” Past Supports or Secured Do NOT Paint Platforms Exception: Platform edges may be covered or marked for identification Brace Fully

62 Front Edge within 14” of Face
For most types of scaffolds found on residential jobsites, the maximum distance from the front edge of the platform must not be more than 14”. Unless, guardrails are installed along the front edge or personal fall arrest systems are used to protect workers from falling.

63 Scaffold Plank 6” Past Support
Ends of platforms must extend at least 6” over the center line of the support, if not equipped with cleats or hooks.

64 Scaffold Plank Cleat Some fabricated scaffold planks are made with hooks to restrain the platform from movement. In this case cleats were installed using 2x4 lumber to prevent movement.

65 Fully Braced Scaffold This scaffold has cross bracing installed and secured according to the manufacturers instructions. Failing to properly brace scaffolding can create instability, resulting in an unsafe condition.

66 Competent Person Responsibilities
Designated competent person: Designated by the employer. Has the knowledge and experience required to identify existing and predictable hazards. Has authority to eliminate unsafe working conditions. Has authority to stop work if unsafe conditions exists.

67 Competent Person Responsibilities, cont.
Train employees who erect, dismantle, move, or alter scaffolds. Determine if it is safe for employees to work on or from a scaffold during storms or high winds. Inspect scaffolds and scaffold components for visible defects before each work shift.

68 Scaffold Access Ladders Needed if Access More Than 2’
Don’t Climb Cross Braces Place Ladders Securely Ladders must be positioned so they will not tip the scaffold

69 Scaffold Access, cont. Access to or from another surface (such as a window) can only be used when the scaffold is: No more than 14” horizontally, and No more than 24” vertically from the other surface

70 Portable Access Ladder
Must be secured to prevent displacement. Extend at least 3’ above landing to provide a handhold.

71 Attachable Access Ladder

72 Scaffold Stairway

73 Scaffold Fall Protection
Scaffolding 10’ or higher must have some means of fall protection: guardrails or personal fall arrest system (PFAS) Toprails installed between 38” and 45” High. Midrails installed halfway between toprail and platform. Cross bracing OK as guardrails if the center point is between 20” to 30” for Midrail and 38” to 45” for Toprail. Toprails to 200 lbs. of force/Midrails to 150 lbs. of force in any direction.

74 Scaffold Fall Protection, cont.
Erecting and Dismantling: Fall protection should be used when feasible and when it does not create a greater hazard Competent person determines the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection

75 Falling Object Protection
Anyone working on or around a scaffold must wear a hard hat. Workers on or below scaffolds must be protected from falling objects by: Toeboards Mesh Screens; or Equivalent measures

76 Falling Object Protection, cont.

77 Falling Object Protection, cont.

78 Scaffold Safety Training
All employees must be trained prior to working on scaffolds. Qualified person must conduct the training and include the following: Electrical Hazards Fall Protection Falling Object Protection Proper Use Material Handling Load-carrying Capacities

79 What type of scaffold do you use?

80 Types of Scaffolds Covered
Fabricated Frame Scaffold Pump Jack Scaffold Ladder Jack Scaffold Trestle & Horse Scaffold Mobile Scaffold Roof Bracket Scaffold Top Plate Scaffold Aerial Lifts Work Platforms attached to forklifts

81 Fabricated Frame

82 Fabricated Frame Have guardrails installed.

83 Fabricated Frame, cont. Use Cross bracing.

84 Fabricated Frame, cont. Use of uplift pins.

85 Fabricated Frame, cont. Supported scaffolds with a height to base width (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of more than four to one (4:1) must be restrained from tipping by: Guying, Tying, Bracing, or Equivalent means

86 Pump Jack Scaffold

87 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
Brackets, braces must be made of metal and installed as per manufacturer specifications.

88 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
Must have guardrails (including end rails), or personal fall arrest system (PFAS), when working at heights above 10‘.

89 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
Keep working surface free from debris.

90 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
When using wood poles the lumber must be: Straight-grained Free of shakes Free of large loose or dead knots, and other defects that might impair strength Wood poles built of two continuous lengths must have seams parallel. Mending plates must be used when 2x4’s are splice together.

91 Ladder Jack Scaffold

92 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
Platform cannot exceed a height of 20’ or be bridged together.

93 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) must be used for work at heights greater than 10’.

94 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
Ladders must be placed, fastened or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

95 Trestle & Horse Scaffolds

96 Trestle Scaffold Scaffold platforms shall not be used above the second to top rung. Job built ladders cannot be used in a trestle scaffold system. Ladders must be secured to prevent displacement.

97 Horse Scaffold Not erected more than 10’ in height or arranged more than two tiers. When stacked one horse must be directly over the other horse and each cross braced. Legs must be nailed down or secured.

98 Mobile Scaffold Do Not move while occupied unless specifically designed for such movement. Before moving inspect for pits, holes, or obstructions on the floor. Push the base On or Near the bottom when moving.

99 Mobile Scaffold, cont. Caster wheels must be locked to prevent movement of the scaffold when stationary. Unlocked Locked

100 Roof Bracket Scaffold Scaffold bracket must be constructed to form to pitch of roof and create a level work surface. Brackets must be nailed into place. When brackets cannot be nailed into place, ¾” manila rope should be used to secure in place. Must use personal fall arrest system. When impractical first-grade manila rope of at least ¾ inch diameter or equivalent must be used

101 Top Plate Scaffold

102 Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
Must hook over and be supported on top plate of wall structure.

103 Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
Wall structure must be braced to hold at least 4 times the intended load.

104 Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
Must follow manufactures specification on particulars of using the different styles.

105 Aerial Lifts

106 Aerial Lifts, cont. ONLY trained and authorized personnel should operate aerial lifts.

107 Aerial Lifts, cont. Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard to the boom or an approved anchor point inside the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent structure.

108 Aerial Lifts, cont. Aerial lifts CANNOT be moved while the bucket is occupied.

109 Aerial Lifts, cont. Stand on the floor of the basket, NEVER step on rails or outside the basket.

110 Aerial Lifts, cont. Do NOT Exceed Load Limits.

111 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts

112 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts
Work platforms can ONLY be used if the machine supporting the personnel platform was designed for such use.

113 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
ONLY trained and authorized personnel are allowed to operate forklifts.

114 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
Use ONLY commercially built personnel baskets designed for lifting workers that meet ANSI requirements. Homemade boxes lifted by forklifts are NOT acceptable.

115 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
Entire platform must be attached to the lifting carriage and/or forks.

116 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
Forklifts CANNOT be moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.

117 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard to the boom or an approved anchor point inside the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent structure.

118 Section 4: Group Workshop
INTRODUCE yourself; briefly speak to your related background. SAY welcome to NAHB-OSHA Fall Protection. Section 4: Group Workshop

119 Hazard Violation Workshop
Students will review a series of photographs of ladders and scaffolds in use on a jobsite. The assignment is to identify the hazards in each photo and discuss the corrective action required to correct the hazard. (Note: Some of the photos are of correct safe work practices.) You Play OSHA!

120 Picture #1 Improper scaffold base. Masonry blocks and bricks are not acceptable as scaffold. These materials may fail due to the weight of the scaffold, workers, and any materials resulting in a collapse.

121 Picture #2 Where do we begin?

122 Picture #3

123 Picture #4

124 Picture #5 This scaffold is fully braced, and set up on a proper base (not clearly visible in photo). Is there any falling object protection in place? Toeboards are not installed at this point.

125 Picture #6 This worker is positioned on the stepladder properly. His body is centered on the ladder while performing truss installation, and he is below the top two rungs.

126 Picture #7 This worker could probably use a taller stepladder to reach his task. He is not using the top two steps/rungs, but he is using the back side of the ladder to increase his reach. The back side of a stepladder is not permitted for use unless designed for such use.

127 Picture #8 Although no one is using the ladder, the metal spreader is not in the fully opened position.

128 Picture #9 This extension ladder is properly secured at the top to prevent displacement. This is one of many ways to secure extension ladders.

129 Picture #10 This ladder is not positioned properly. When extension ladders are being used to access another level, they must extend at least 3ft. beyond the landing surface to provide a handhold for getting on and off of the ladder.

130 Picture #11 This pump jack scaffold has a few issues with it’s set up, not to mention the ladder off to the left. Pump Jack Scaffold The platform of the scaffold is greater than 10ft. in height, without guardrails in place. Poles are not secured to the structure at the base. Notice the angle of the pole on the right. Mudsills are not in place. Extension Ladder The ladder is not set up at the proper angle, increasing the chances of the ladder slipping.

131 Picture #12

132 Picture #13

133 Section 5: Post Test and Review

134 NAHB Labor, Safety & Health Department and OSHA
If you have any further questions contact: Robert Matuga, Assistant Vice President (800) ext. 8507 Kevin Cannon, Safety Specialist


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