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Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training 1. Disclaimer This material was produced under grant number SH-17787-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety and Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training 1. Disclaimer This material was produced under grant number SH-17787-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety and Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training 1

2 Disclaimer This material was produced under grant number SH-17787-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. This presentation is intended to discuss Federal Regulations only - your individual State requirements may be more stringent as many states operate their own state OSHA and they may have adopted construction standards that are different from information presented in this training. If you live in a state with an OSHA approved state plan, you should contact your local administrator for further information on the standards applicable in your state. These materials are meant for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the thoroughness of the presentation. 2

3 Disclaimer, cont. It is not the intent to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address hazard awareness in the residential construction (i.e. home building) industry, and to recognize the overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces. Photos shown in this presentation may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA/safety requirements. No legal advice is offered or implied, and no attorney-client relationship is intended or established. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required the services of a competent professional person should be sought. It is the responsibility of the employer and its employees to comply with all pertinent OSHA/safety rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. 3

4 Introduction Falls from scaffolds and ladders are a leading cause of serious and fatal injuries in residential construction. The goals of this course are to help you: –understand how to correct or eliminate fall hazards on your job sites related to scaffold and ladder use –understand the OSHA scaffold and ladder safety requirements 4

5 Introduction, cont. The course is based on the NAHB-OSHA Scaffold Safety Handbook, Scaffold Safety Video, Fall Protection Handbook and Fall Protection Video. Participants can use the information from this seminar to: –Provide training to employees –Implement a ladder and scaffold safety program 5

6 Course Objectives 1.Identify the importance of preventing falls from ladders and scaffolds. 2.Recognize fall hazards associated with ladder and scaffold use. 3.Identify OSHA requirements for ladders, stairways, and scaffolds. 4.Identify work practices for using ladders and scaffolds safely. 6

7 Course Agenda Section 1: Overview Section 2: Ladder Safety Section 3: Scaffold Safety Section 4: Group Workshop Section 5: Post Test and Review 7

8 Section 1: Overview 8

9 Why is Preventing Falls from Ladders and Scaffolds Important? Falls continue to be the leading cause of fatalities in residential construction. Falls (602) were responsible for 45% of residential construction fatalities from 2003 to 2006. 135 (22%) were falls from ladders. 89 (15%) were falls from scaffolding. 9 Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities 2003-2006 ( )

10 Fatalities by Event or Exposure: Residential Construction Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities 2003-2006 ( ) 10

11 Fall Fatalities: Residential Construction 11 Source: NAHB Residential Construction Industry Fatalities 2003-2006 ( )

12 Most Frequently Cited Serious Violations In Construction - 2007 Standard & Subpart - 1926. Top 10 Citations Fall protection – Residential construction 6’ or more Aerial Lifts - Body belt and lanyard Head protection Portable ladders 3 feet above landing surface Training for employees using scaffolds Fall hazards training program Scaffolds - Fall protection Fall protection - Unprotected sides & edges Scaffolds - Platform construction Scaffolds - Access 12

13 OSHA: Scaffold and Ladder Citations Plastering Contractor fined $106,200 for exposing employees to fall hazards while working on a scaffold without using fall protection equipment. Roofing Contractor fined $61,800 following an OSHA inspection for exposing employees to fall hazards including the use of a ladder that did not extend 3 ft. beyond the landing surface. 13

14 OSHA Fall Protection Requirements Subpart L - 1926.451(g) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10’ (3.1M) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to a lower level. Subpart X – Ladders Fall protection is not required for workers climbing or working on portable ladders. Subpart X – Stairways Stairways having four (4) or more risers or rising more than 30 inches must be equipped with at least on handrail; and one stairrail system along each unprotected side or edge. 14

15 OSHA Fall Protection Requirements cont. Subpart M - 1926.501(b)(13) Residential construction. Each employee engaged in residential construction activities 6’ or more above lower levels must be protected by conventional or alternative fall protection: Exemption: When the employer can demonstrate the protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard the employer must develop an alternative fall protection plan. 15

16 In the Headlines 16

17 In the Headlines, cont. 17

18 How do you prevent falls from ladders and scaffolds? Implement a comprehensive safety program. Understand OSHA ladder and scaffold regulations. Train workers to identify hazards associated with ladder and scaffold use. Use safe work practices. 18

19 Section 2: Ladder and Stairway Safety 19

20 Learning Objectives: Section 2 Determine the proper ladder to use based on weight capacity and height. Calculate the proper pitch of extension ladders for proper set-up, and identify how to secure and stabilize ladders. Identify how to maintain a safe position when using a ladder. Identify safety requirements for protecting stairways. 20

21 Common Ladder Hazards Improper set-up Portable ladders not 3 feet above landing surface Not securing ladder correctly Standing on the top two steps of a stepladder Overreaching when working from a ladder 21

22 Choosing the Right Ladder Before stepping onto a ladder, think about these things: Duty rating of the ladder—what capacity can it hold? Height of the ladder—too short or too tall? Condition of the ladder and instructions unique to the ladder selected. 22

23 Proper Duty Rating/Capacity OSHA Requirement Ladders shall not be loaded beyond the maximum intended load for which they were built nor beyond their manufacturer's rated capacity. 23

24 Proper Duty Rating/Capacity, cont. Select a ladder with the proper duty rating for your weight and the materials you are handling. 24

25 Extension Ladders 25

26 Proper Ladder Set-up Consider placement and pitch of the ladder. Secure and stabilize the ladder. 26

27 Pitch Extension Ladders Extension ladders should be used at a 4 to 1 pitch (1.2 to.3 m). For every 4 ft. (1.2 m) in height, the bottom of the ladder should be 1 ft. (.3 m) away from the structure. Extension ladders should be used at a 4 to 1 pitch (1.2 to.3 m). For every 4 ft. (1.2 m) in height, the bottom of the ladder should be 1 ft. (.3 m) away from the structure. Example: 20 ft. (height) ÷ 4 ft. = 5 ft. pitch 27

28 Pitch Extension Ladders, cont. 28

29 Proper Height Extension Ladders When accessing another level, the ladder must extend at least 3ft. (0.9m) above the landing to provide a hand hold for getting on and off the ladder. 3 ft. 29

30 Proper Height for Extension Ladders, cont. Choose the right ladder for the height you need to reach. Ladder Height (ft.) Maximum Reach (ft.)* Height to Gutter or Top Support Point+ 16159 ft. max. 20199-13 ft. 242313-17 ft. 282717-21 ft. 323121-25 ft. 363425-28 ft. 403728-31 ft. *Assume a 5 ft.-6 in. person with a vertical reach of 12 in. +Support points for extension ladders reflect section overlap, ladder angle, or 3-ft. extension above roof line 30

31 Secure and Stabilize Ladders Extension ladders should be secured at the top or bottom to prevent movement. The base of an extension ladder must be secured in place by using the safety feet on the ladder or other effective means. 31

32 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont. 32

33 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont. 33

34 Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont. 34

35 Loose Soil 35

36 Step Ladders 36

37 Step Ladders Only use in the fully open position on firm level ground. Do not use a stepladder that is folded or in a leaning position. Never sit/stand on the top two rungs. Consider work height when selecting a stepladder. 37

38 Step Ladders, cont. Stepladders are designed for use in an opened-and- locked position. 38

39 Step Ladders, cont. Do NOT use a stepladder that is folded or in a leaning position. 39

40 Proper Height Stepladders Choose a stepladder that is no more than 4ft. shorter than the height you want to Reach. 40

41 Maintain a Safe Position on Ladders Face the ladder when ascending or descending. Maintain three points of contact at all times. Keep your body centered on the ladder. Never let your belt buckle pass either siderail. 41

42 Maintaining a Safe Position on a Ladder, cont. 42

43 Ladder Inspections Ladders must be inspected before each use. Broken or weak ladders or ladders that are not stable must be marked or tagged as defective and taken out of service. Look for cracks and weak points. Competent person must periodically inspect ladders. 43

44 Ladder Inspection, cont. 44

45 Review the Safety Labels on the Ladder 45

46 Additional Safe Work Practices: Ladders Extension ladders should not be separated to create two ladders. Keep the areas around the tops and bottoms of all ladders clear to prevent trip-and-fall hazards. Avoid setting ladders up in high traffic areas or barricade the area around ladder. 46

47 Additional Safe Work Practices: Ladders, cont. Ladders must be kept free of oil, grease, and other slipping hazards. Consider using a rope to raise/lower materials instead of carrying items while climbing a ladder. Do NOT use metal or aluminum ladders near exposed energized electrical equipment. 47

48 Section 3: Scaffold Safety 48

49 Learning Objectives: Section 3 Identify general requirements for safely building and using scaffolds. Identify competent person responsibilities. How to access scaffolds safely. Determine proper fall protection including guardrails and personal fall arrest systems. Identify safety requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. 49

50 Common Scaffold Hazards No guardrails on scaffolds. Defective wood planks and inadequate planking overhang. Unsafe access to scaffold. Cross bracing not adequate. Inadequate footings. Bridging of scaffolds. 50

51 General Requirements Erect/dismantle all Scaffolds According to the Manufacturer's Instructions and Competent Persons (CP) Direction Capacity –Must support 4x Intended Load Stable Footings –Base Plate, Screw Jacks & Mudsills 51

52 General Requirements, cont. Platforms at Least 18” Wide –Ladder Jack, Pump Jack, Top Plate, and Roof Brackets Can Be 12” Wide –Front edge of all platforms within 14” of face of work Exceptions: –3” for outrigger scaffolds –18” for plastering and lathing operations 52

53 Scaffold Capacity Scaffolds must be capable of supporting its own weight and at least 4x the expected load. Expected load includes: Workers Equipment Tools Materials 53

54 Scaffold Capacity, cont. Scaffold Capacity = Expected Load x 4 400 lbs of Workers 100 lbs of Tools + 100 lbs of Materials 600 lbs x 4 = 2,400 lbs 54

55 Base Plate & Mudsill Required 55

56 Proper Scaffold Base 56

57 Masonry Blocks & Bricks NOT Acceptable as Scaffold Base 57

58 Scaffold Platform Each platform on all working levels must be fully planked and secured to prevent movement. No more than a 1” space between decking/platform units and upright supports. Wood scaffold planks must be nominal 2” x 10”. Must be Scaffold Grade Planks or equivalent. 58

59 Scaffold Grade Plank Stamp 59

60 Planks with Visible Defects MUST NOT be Used 60

61 Scaffold Use Do NOT use objects (ladders, boxes, barrels, etc.) on top of scaffold platforms to increase height Planks Extend 6” Past Supports or Secured Do NOT Paint Platforms –Exception: Platform edges may be covered or marked for identification Brace Fully 61

62 Front Edge within 14” of Face 62

63 Scaffold Plank 6” Past Support 63

64 Scaffold Plank Cleat 64

65 Fully Braced Scaffold 65

66 Competent Person Responsibilities Designated competent person: Designated by the employer. Has the knowledge and experience required to identify existing and predictable hazards. Has authority to eliminate unsafe working conditions. Has authority to stop work if unsafe conditions exists. 66

67 Competent Person Responsibilities, cont. Train employees who erect, dismantle, move, or alter scaffolds. Determine if it is safe for employees to work on or from a scaffold during storms or high winds. Inspect scaffolds and scaffold components for visible defects before each work shift. 67

68 Scaffold Access Ladders Needed if Access More Than 2’ Don’t Climb Cross Braces Place Ladders Securely –Ladders must be positioned so they will not tip the scaffold 68

69 Scaffold Access, cont. Access to or from another surface (such as a window) can only be used when the scaffold is: –No more than 14” horizontally, and –No more than 24” vertically from the other surface 69

70 Portable Access Ladder Must be secured to prevent displacement. Extend at least 3’ above landing to provide a handhold. 70

71 Attachable Access Ladder 71

72 Scaffold Stairway 72

73 Scaffold Fall Protection Scaffolding 10’ or higher must have some means of fall protection: –guardrails or –personal fall arrest system (PFAS) Toprails installed between 38” and 45” High. Midrails installed halfway between toprail and platform. Cross bracing OK as guardrails if the center point is between 20” to 30” for Midrail and 38” to 45” for Toprail. Toprails to 200 lbs. of force/Midrails to 150 lbs. of force in any direction. 73

74 Scaffold Fall Protection, cont. Erecting and Dismantling: –Fall protection should be used when feasible and when it does not create a greater hazard –Competent person determines the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection 74

75 Falling Object Protection Anyone working on or around a scaffold must wear a hard hat. Workers on or below scaffolds must be protected from falling objects by: Toeboards Mesh Screens; or Equivalent measures 75

76 Falling Object Protection, cont. 76

77 Falling Object Protection, cont. 77

78 Scaffold Safety Training All employees must be trained prior to working on scaffolds. Qualified person must conduct the training and include the following: –Electrical Hazards –Fall Protection –Falling Object Protection –Proper Use –Material Handling –Load-carrying Capacities 78

79 What type of scaffold do you use? 79

80 Types of Scaffolds Covered Fabricated Frame Scaffold Pump Jack Scaffold Ladder Jack Scaffold Trestle & Horse Scaffold Mobile Scaffold Roof Bracket Scaffold Top Plate Scaffold Aerial Lifts Work Platforms attached to forklifts 80

81 Fabricated Frame 81

82 Fabricated Frame Have guardrails installed. 82

83 Fabricated Frame, cont. Use Cross bracing. 83

84 Fabricated Frame, cont. Use of uplift pins. 84

85 Fabricated Frame, cont. Supported scaffolds with a height to base width (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of more than four to one (4:1) must be restrained from tipping by: – Guying, – Tying, –Bracing, or –Equivalent means 85

86 Pump Jack Scaffold 86

87 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont. Brackets, braces must be made of metal and installed as per manufacturer specifications. 87

88 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont. Must have guardrails (including end rails), or personal fall arrest system (PFAS), when working at heights above 10‘. 88

89 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont. Keep working surface free from debris. 89

90 Pump Jack Scaffold, cont. When using wood poles the lumber must be: –Straight-grained –Free of shakes –Free of large loose or dead knots, and other defects that might impair strength Wood poles built of two continuous lengths must have seams parallel. Mending plates must be used when 2x4’s are splice together. 90

91 Ladder Jack Scaffold 91

92 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont. Platform cannot exceed a height of 20’ or be bridged together. 92

93 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont. Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) must be used for work at heights greater than 10’. 93

94 Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont. Ladders must be placed, fastened or equipped with devices to prevent slipping. 94

95 Trestle & Horse Scaffolds 95

96 Trestle Scaffold Scaffold platforms shall not be used above the second to top rung. Job built ladders cannot be used in a trestle scaffold system. Ladders must be secured to prevent displacement. 96

97 Horse Scaffold Not erected more than 10’ in height or arranged more than two tiers. When stacked one horse must be directly over the other horse and each cross braced. Legs must be nailed down or secured. 97

98 Mobile Scaffold Do Not move while occupied unless specifically designed for such movement. Before moving inspect for pits, holes, or obstructions on the floor. Push the base On or Near the bottom when moving. 98

99 Mobile Scaffold, cont. Caster wheels must be locked to prevent movement of the scaffold when stationary. 99 Unlocked Locked

100 Roof Bracket Scaffold Scaffold bracket must be constructed to form to pitch of roof and create a level work surface. Brackets must be nailed into place. When brackets cannot be nailed into place, ¾” manila rope should be used to secure in place. Must use personal fall arrest system. 100

101 Top Plate Scaffold 101

102 Top Plate Scaffold, cont. Must hook over and be supported on top plate of wall structure. 102

103 Top Plate Scaffold, cont. Wall structure must be braced to hold at least 4 times the intended load. 103

104 Top Plate Scaffold, cont. Must follow manufactures specification on particulars of using the different styles. 104

105 Aerial Lifts 105

106 Aerial Lifts, cont. ONLY trained and authorized personnel should operate aerial lifts. 106

107 Aerial Lifts, cont. Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard to the boom or an approved anchor point inside the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent structure. 107

108 Aerial Lifts, cont. Aerial lifts CANNOT be moved while the bucket is occupied. 108

109 Aerial Lifts, cont. Stand on the floor of the basket, NEVER step on rails or outside the basket. 109

110 Aerial Lifts, cont. Do NOT Exceed Load Limits. 110

111 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts 111

112 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts Work platforms can ONLY be used if the machine supporting the personnel platform was designed for such use.

113 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont. ONLY trained and authorized personnel are allowed to operate forklifts. 113

114 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont. Use ONLY commercially built personnel baskets designed for lifting workers that meet ANSI requirements. Homemade boxes lifted by forklifts are NOT acceptable. 114

115 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont. Entire platform must be attached to the lifting carriage and/or forks. 115

116 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont. Forklifts CANNOT be moved horizontally while the platform is occupied. 116

117 Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont. Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard to the boom or an approved anchor point inside the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent structure. 117

118 Section 4: Group Workshop 118

119 Hazard Violation Workshop Students will review a series of photographs of ladders and scaffolds in use on a jobsite. The assignment is to identify the hazards in each photo and discuss the corrective action required to correct the hazard. (Note: Some of the photos are of correct safe work practices.) You Play OSHA! 119

120 Picture #1 120

121 Picture #2 121

122 Picture #3 122

123 Picture #4 123

124 Picture #5 124

125 Picture #6 125

126 Picture #7 126

127 Picture #8 127

128 Picture #9 128

129 Picture #10 129

130 Picture #11 130

131 Picture #12 131

132 Picture #13 132

133 Section 5: Post Test and Review 133

134 NAHB Labor, Safety & Health Department and OSHA If you have any further questions contact: Robert Matuga, Assistant Vice President (800) 368-5242 ext. 8507 Kevin Cannon, Safety Specialist (800) 368-5242 ext. 8507 134

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