Ladders and Scaffolds New England Roofing Industry Partnership
Ladders and Scaffolds 1 29 CFR 1926.1050 -.1053, Subpart X - Ladders 29 CFR 1926.450 -.454, Subpart L - Scaffolds American National Standards Institute (ANSI) References SUBPARTS X & L
2 After completing this section you will: –Understand safe ladder placement & use. –Know how to inspect a ladder for defects. –Know the basics of Subpart X - Ladders. –Understand safe erection and use of scaffolding. –Know the basics of Subpart L – Scaffolds. Training Objectives SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds X & L
Ladders not secured Ladder not extended 3 feet above landing Defective ladders Ladders within 10 feet of power lines Fixed ladders without fall protection 12% of OSHA citations for physical hazards are for unsafe ladders or stairs. Most deaths from falls off ladders happen from 10 feet or lower. Ladder Hazards Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 3 X & L
Access to the Work Level If elevation change is 19 inches or more and there is no ramp, runway, slope or hoist: – Employer must provide stairway & ladders prior to work at elevated areas. – Two or more ladders or double-cleated ladder if more than 25 employees. – At least one access point between levels must be clear at all times. Ladders and Scaffolds 4 SUBPARTS X & L
Basic Ladder Use Use only for intended purpose. Extend 3 feet above surface. Set up at 4:1 angle. Secure top and bottom. Keep top and bottom areas clear. Maintain 3-point contact. –Cannot work off ladder unless 3-point contact is maintained. Ladders and Scaffolds 5 SUBPARTS X & L
Basic Ladder Use Don’t move a ladder that is occupied. Don’t overload a ladder. Keep up inspection and maintenance. Don’t use on a slippery surface. Use non-conductive near electric. Don’t tie together to make longer. Don’t paint wooden ladders. Ladders and Scaffolds 6 SUBPARTS X & L
Basic Stepladder Use Do not use top step on stepladder. Stepladders cannot be used leaned against a vertical wall, they must be opened and used as intended. –Use ONLY as intended by the manufacturer! Ladders and Scaffolds 7 SUBPARTS X & L
3 foot extension above landing Top end secured Maximum extension not exceeded Bottom secured 1/4 th of Working Length Ladders and Scaffolds 8 SUBPARTS X & L Proper Ladder Set-Up
Can they be fixed? Ladders must be inspected by a Competent Person. Ladders and Scaffolds 9 X & L SUBPARTS Defective Ladders Is this a citation? Is there a hazard created here?
Ladders and Scaffolds 10 X & L SUBPARTS Access to the Roof What is done right here? What could be done better? The Job-Made Ladder
Scenes We Don’t Want to See 1926.1053(a)(2) LADDERS Rungs, cleats and steps shall be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced. Do we really even need an OSHA standard to tell us there’s something wrong here? Ladders and Scaffolds 11 SUBPARTS X & L
Stupid Ladder Tricks Ladders and Scaffolds 12 SUBPARTS X & L
Ladders and Scaffolds 13 SUBPARTS X & L More Stupid Ladder Tricks
Your employer must train you..1060 Training Requirements Ladders and Scaffolds 14 SUBPARTS X & L
Ladders (1926.1050 -.1053) Ladders and Scaffolds 15 SUBPARTS X & L Common OSHA Citations: –.1053(b)(1): Extension 3 feet above landing surface –.1052(c)(1): Stairs with > 4 risers or >30” height are to have at least one handrail; stair rail on open side –.1051(a): Stair or ladder for >19” break in elevation –.1060(a): Training as necessary –.1053(b)(4): Ladder use only as intended –.1053(b)(13): Stepladder top step not to be used. How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?
Scaffolding for Roof Access Depending on the type of job you may use: –Frame Scaffolds –Mobile Scaffolds –Stair Towers –Ladder Jacks –Pump Jacks –Aerial Lifts such as Scissor Lift or Manlift Under OSHA standards, these are all “elevated work platforms”. Ladders and Scaffolds 16 SUBPARTS X & L
9% of construction deaths are scaffold-related. Scaffold falls injure 29,000 workers every year. 47% of all scaffold catastrophes and deaths are caused by defective scaffolds. Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe. The danger of falling is most common. Scaffold Hazards Ladders and Scaffolds 17 X & L SUBPARTS
Supported scaffolds must have these features: How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe? Ladders and Scaffolds 18 SUBPARTS X & L
Firm Foundation Must have a foundation that is firm, square and level. Support must bear on base plates and mudsills or other adequate, firm foundation. ─ Must support load without settling or displacement. ─ Must not use “unstable objects” as support. ─ Base plates are always required, even on concrete. Ladders and Scaffolds 19 X & L SUBPARTS
HEEL TEST: If a 180-pound worker can dig a heel an inch into the soil, it will not support 1,600 psf. Look for firm ground and sills to distribute the scaffold load. How to Make a Solid Foundation Ladders and Scaffolds 20 X & L SUBPART
Ladders and Scaffolds 21 SUBPARTS X & L Firm Foundation?
Scaffold Capacity Support its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL). Suspension rope & hardware, 6 X MIL. Stall load of hoist maximum 3 X rated load. Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design. Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A' Ladders and Scaffolds 22 SUBPARTS X & L
How much load do we need the scaffold to support? – Evenly distributed: Must support 4 X Maximum Intended Load. – Supported Scaffolds: Capacity determined by the space between the uprights and plank thickness. Scaffold Capacity Ladders and Scaffolds 23 SUBPARTS X & L
Can we apply any of the “capacity” criteria here? Ladders and Scaffolds 24 SUBPARTS X & L Capacity?
Bracing holds parts fixed in relation to another. Bracing Poles, legs, frames and uprights must be plumb and braced. Ladders and Scaffolds 25 SUBPARTS X & L
You can visually check scaffold alignment. Plumb: Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon. Level: Horizontal members are parallel to horizon. Square: Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect. Plumb, Level, Square Ladders and Scaffolds 26 X & L SUBPARTS
Competent Person decision required. Is scaffold structural integrity maintained? Ladders and Scaffolds 27 X & L SUBPARTS Mixed Manufacturer’s Components
Keeping Upright When suspended scaffold reaches a height that is more than 4 times its minimum base dimension, it must be restrained to keep from tipping. –Guys/Braces at horizontal members. –Guys/ties/braces in accordance with manufacturer or closest to 4:1 height. –Ties repeat at 26 feet vertical; maximum 30 feet horizontal. Ladders and Scaffolds 28 X & L SUBPARTS
This 6-tier scaffold is anchored to the building with rope through windows. A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends. Ladders and Scaffolds 29 X & L SUBPARTS Tie-Ins to the Building
Platform Construction Platforms fully planked or decked Maximum 1” gaps Maximum openings of 9½” if necessary Platforms and walkways minimum 18” wide Ladder jack, top plate bracket, roof bracket, and pump jack scaffold at least 12” wide Guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” wide Ladders and Scaffolds 30 SUBPARTS X & L
Fully planked with scaffold-grade wood or metal. What Makes a Safe Platform? Ladders and Scaffolds 31 SUBPARTS X & L
Grading Stamps identify scaffold grade lumber in many parts of the U.S. Scaffold planks must be in good repair. Look for damage that reduces width, length, thickness, or strength. Replace damaged planks immediately. It is free of defects. What Is Scaffold-Grade Lumber? Ladders and Scaffolds 32 X & L SUBPARTS
Front edge of all platforms: – Maximum 14” from the face of the work – 3” from the face for outrigger scaffolds – 18” from face for plastering/lathing operations Platform extension minimum 6”; maximum 12” – >10 feet, maximum 18” past support Ladders and Scaffolds 33 X & L SUBPARTS Platform Construction
Support for ends of abutted planks Overlap minimum 12” and only over supports, unless restrained to prevent movement. On directional changes, platform on bearer at other than a right angle laid first, and platforms at right angles over the same bearer laid second. Platform Construction Ladders and Scaffolds 34 SUBPARTS X & L
Platform Construction Don’t paint wood, except ID on edges Fully planked between front upright & guardrails Don’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision] Don’t modify mixed scaffold components to make them fit [C.P. decision] No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approval Ladders and Scaffolds 35 SUBPARTS X & L
Platforms Do not use front-end loader to support scaffold platforms unless they have been designed for such use. Forklifts cannot be used to support platforms unless: – The entire platform is attached to the fork, and – The forklift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied. Ladders and Scaffolds 36 X & L SUBPARTS
DON’T BECOME A STATISTIC!! Is this in any way a safe platform? Ladders and Scaffolds 37 SUBPARTS X & L
Unsafe Anywhere… This is not the kind of teamwork we're looking for… Ladders and Scaffolds 38 X & L SUBPARTS
Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights. Evenly distributed – A good practice! Point Loading - When necessary, it should be done over uprights. An unsafe practice! What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? Ladders and Scaffolds 39 SUBPARTS X & L
Safe Access Must have safe access –No access by cross braces –Bottom rung not more than 24” high –From other surface if within 14" H, 24" V –Rest platforms at 35’ intervals –Safe access for erectors/dismantlers Competent Person Decision 22" Horizontals OK for Builders Some end frames can be used for access. Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 40 X & L
25% of scaffold accidents happen when workers get on or get off. If work platforms are more than 2 feet above a point of access, then stairs, ladders, or personnel hoists must be used. You must never climb on scaffold braces or frames without built-in ladders. Safe Access Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 41
2 hands and 1 foot or 1 hand and 2 feet on ladder. – You must face the ladder. – You cannot carry any load that could cause you to lose your balance. – Use a gin wheel to hoist materials and equipment onto the scaffold. 3-Point Climbing on Scaffold Ladders Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 42 X & L
Failure to provide safe access. Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 43
Using the Scaffold Never overload: Lesser of Maximum Intended Load or rated load Inspected by Competent Person No shore or lean-to scaffolds Immediately remove, repair, or brace if found substandard No horizontal movement while occupied unless approved Maintain clearance near powerlines Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 44
Using the Scaffold No makeshift devices to increase height – The 'Drywall Bucket Rule' No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and: – Side thrust countered, platform secured – Ladder legs on same platform & secured Platforms should not deflect > 1/60 of span Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 45
Using the Scaffold Erect, move, dismantle or alter only under the supervision of a Competent Person! No work on snow, ice covered platforms. Use taglines for swinging loads. Protect suspension ropes from heat, acid No work during storms or high winds. No debris accumulation on platforms. Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 46
Power Line Clearance Keep 10 foot minimum unless de-energized! Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 47
The old and the new, but still a ‘Lean-To’ Lean-to Scaffolds are Prohibited Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 48
Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) or guardrails are required at 10 foot height. PFAS and guardrails are required on suspended scaffolds. PFAS is required for erectors/dismantlers where feasible. Fall Protection for Scaffolds Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 49
Guardrails prevent work falls. ─ Toprails must be 38” to 45” above working platform. ─ Crossbracing can serve as top or mid- rail depending on height. Toprail must withstand a force of 200 pounds (or 100 pounds on suspension scaffolds). Only 33% of the scaffolds involved in accidents had guardrails. Guardrails Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 50
Personal Fall Arrest Systems Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 51 PFAS used on scaffolds must be attached by lanyard, vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or scaffold structural member. – Vertical lifelines must be fastened to fixed safe point of anchorage, independent of the scaffold. Do not attach two vertical lifelines together or to same anchorage point. – Horizontal lifelines must be attached to 2 or more structural members of the scaffold.
Competent Person must take into account: – Adequate Anchorage? – Clearance? – Work Practices? – Motions Required? – Equipment Available? – Environmental conditions? Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 52 Fall Protection for Erectors
Falling Object Protection Hardhats required Protect employees below Barricades to exclude working below Toe boards at edges of platforms –Manufactured or job-made with 1x6 or plank May use panels, screens, or canopies Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 53
Fabricated Frame Scaffolds New frames braced before moving platforms Always plumb, level, square with bracing secured. Frames joined vertically by coupling pins Where uplift can occur - locked together Side brackets parallel; end brackets at 90 0 Not bent or twisted; Personnel only, unless engineered Over 125 ft. high requires engineer design Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 54
Mobile Scaffolds Plumb; Level square; Braces secured Cross, horizontal & diagonal braces to prevent racking or collapse Mobile scaffolds must comply with other frame requirements Castors - positive lock on wheel and/or swivel Force to move no more than 5 feet above base Ladders and Scaffolds 55 X & L SUBPARTS 53
Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 56 Horizontal and diagonal bracing required to prevent “racking”. Most manufacturers provide with fixed length. Mobile Scaffolds X & L
Mobile Scaffolds Diagonal bracing; prevents “racking” No platforms beyond base Screwjacks or equivalent to level Castor stems pinned or bolted Not moved with riders unless: –Height: base ratio = 2:1 or designed –Surface within 3 0 of level; no obstructions –Outriggers both sides if used; no extension beyond support Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 57 X & L
Ladder Jacks Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 58 Maximum height = 20 feet PFAS required at > 10 feet. Ladders to meet Subpart X Ladders must be secured Platforms can’t be overlapped
“Catapult” action on quick drop expels user. Fall Protection Required! Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 60 Aerial Lifts X & L
Vehicle-mounted or self-propelled elevating work platforms – training is required! Aerial Lifts Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 61 X & L
Attach lanyard to the provided tie-off point only. Other Requirements: ─ Stand firmly on basket floor. ─ Do not climb on basket edge. ─ Do not use ladders or planks. Tie-Off in Lift Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 62
Aerial lifts provide a safe method of reaching your working area…as long as they are used appropriately. Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 63 This is definitely NOT the appropriate way to use an aerial lift or a stepladder.
What’s Wrong Here? Ladders and Scaffolds X &L SUBPARTS 64
Don’t allow tools, materials, or debris to collect on scaffold. Never, never throw or drop tools, materials, or equipment. Make sure connections are in place and completely tight. Do not stand on ties. Do not stand on guardrails or plank extensions. Do not overreach outside of the guardrails. Protect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety Practice Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTS 65 X & L
Protect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety Practice Stay off scaffold during loading or unloading. Replace guardrails after loading or unloading. Use 3-point climbing. Don’t hang tarps without evaluation. Get off mobile scaffold before it’s moved. Never leave partially dismantled scaffolds unguarded or unlabelled. Wear the right clothing and safety gear. Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 66
Your employer must train you..454 Training Requirements Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 67
Scaffolds (1926.450 -.454) Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 68 Common OSHA Citations: –.451(g)(1): Fall protection at 10 feet –.451(e)(1): 2 foot max. vertical platform access Cross braces not to be used as access –.451(b)(1): Full deck at all working levels –.453(b)(2)(v): Fall protection in aerial lifts –.454(a): Scaffold user training How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?
Review Questions Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 69 True or False? LADDERS 1. Stepladders can be folded and leaned against a wall and used as a ladder. 2. Ladders must extend 2 feet above landing area. 3. The proper ladder angle is 1:4. 4. It’s OK to use the top step of a stepladder if you can’t reach. 5. Ladders must be secured when used.
Review Questions Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 70 True or False? SCAFFOLDS 1. Scaffolds and their components must support 3 times the maximum intended load. 2. Only one or two planks are required for a work deck. 3. You can access a scaffold by the cross braces.
Review Questions Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTS 71 True or False? SCAFFOLDS 4. Guardrails or other fall protection is required at 10 feet or higher. 5. A scaffold should never be less than 3 feet from an energized power line. 6. In an aerial lift, you can tie off to an adjacent pole or structure.