Presentation on theme: "Ladders and Scaffolds Trainer's Notes:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ladders and Scaffolds Trainer's Notes: New England Roofing Industry PartnershipLadders and ScaffoldsTrainer's Notes:Duration: One HourTraining Aids:Always good to have a stepladder and or ladder to refer to during discussion. Take note of scaffolds in the neighborhood that the participants may be familiar with to talk about.Video Options:“Scaffold Safety: From the Ground Up, Parts 1 & 2 (NRCA)“Scaffold Safety: From the Ground Up, Part 3, Aerial Lifts, Forklifts, and Fork-Mounted Platforms” (NRCA)
2 References 29 CFR 1926.1050 - .1053, Subpart X - Ladders SUBPARTSX & LLadders and Scaffolds1References29 CFR , Subpart X - Ladders29 CFR , Subpart L - ScaffoldsAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI)Trainer's Notes:Manufacturer’s literature is always useful to make your points about intended use, load ratings and so on…
3 Training Objectives After completing this section you will: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds2X & LTraining ObjectivesAfter completing this section you will:Understand safe ladder placement & use.Know how to inspect a ladder for defects.Know the basics of Subpart X - Ladders.Understand safe erection and use of scaffolding.Know the basics of Subpart L – Scaffolds.Trainer's Notes:Ask participants to relate some of their experiences. Facilitate discussion of ladders and scaffolds in roofing since this is an important area as it relates to potential for fall injuries.
4 Ladder Hazards Ladders not secured SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds3X & LLadder HazardsLadders not securedLadder not extended 3 feet above landingDefective laddersLadders within 10 feet of power linesFixed ladders without fall protection12% of OSHA citations for physical hazards are for unsafe ladders or stairs.Most deaths from falls off ladders happen from 10 feet or lower.Trainers Notes:In the roofing industry, ladders ranked #3 in OSHA citations for 1999 (SIC 1761).
5 Access to the Work Level SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds4X & LAccess to the Work LevelIf elevation change is 19 inches or more and there is no ramp, runway, slope or hoist:Employer must provide stairway & laddersprior to work at elevated areas.Two or more ladders or double-cleatedladder if more than 25 employees.At least one access point between levels must be clear at all times.Trainer's Notes:Stress the potential for injury on a job site where there is a lot of climbing without proper ladders, stairs and scaffolding.
6 Basic Ladder Use Use only for intended purpose. Extend 3 feet above SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds5X & LBasic Ladder UseUse only for intended purpose.Extend 3 feet abovesurface.Set up at 4:1 angle.Secure top and bottom.Keep top and bottom areasclear.Maintain 3-point contact.Cannot work off ladder unless3-point contact is maintained.Trainer's Notes:If job-made ladders are used they must meet OSHA specifications – also in Subpart X.
7 Basic Ladder Use Don’t move a ladder that is occupied. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds6X & LBasic Ladder UseDon’t move a ladder that is occupied.Don’t overload a ladder.Keep up inspection and maintenance.Don’t use on a slippery surface.Use non-conductive near electric.Don’t tie together to make longer.Don’t paint wooden ladders.Trainer's Notes:
8 Basic Stepladder Use Do not use top step on stepladder. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds7X & LBasic Stepladder UseDo not use top step on stepladder.Stepladders cannot be used leaned against a vertical wall, they must be opened and used as intended.Use ONLY as intended by the manufacturer!Trainer's Notes:Ask the group: Just why is it that we all misuse and abuse stepladders so much? (See stupid ladder tricks in subsequent slides.)
9 Proper Ladder Set-Up Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds8X & LProper Ladder Set-Up3 foot extension above landingTop end securedTrainer's Notes:Remind the group that all of the ladder set up and use precautions are on the sticker on the side rail of every ladder they will see. Has anyone ever read it? Why is the 4:1 ladder slope the safest? Can anyone demonstrate how to measure that slope when setting up a ladder?Maximum extensionnot exceededBottom secured1/4th of Working Length
10 Is this a citation? Is there a hazard created here? SUBPARTSX & LLadders and Scaffolds9Defective LaddersLadders must be inspected by a Competent Person.Can they be fixed?Trainer's Notes:Emphasize that the only acceptable ‘fix’ would be as approved by the manufacturer. Ask for opinions of the situation at right – is this ladder weakened? Is there a hazard? What would (should) an OSHA inspector do?Is this a citation? Is there a hazard created here?
11 Access to the Roof The Job-Made Ladder SUBPARTSX & LLadders and Scaffolds10Access to the RoofThe Job-Made LadderWhat is done right here? What could be done better?Trainer's Notes:The participants should be able to point out that:(1) the ladder cleats are properly installed with blocksfor support(2) the ladder is long enough with 3 foot extension.(3) looks like it’s at the proper angle(you may want to have them look up the differencein angle for job-made vs. manufactured portableladder)(4) and that it is secured in place.Access might be improved if the cleats above the landing are removed to allow walk-through.As to perimeter fall protection – we don’t know the whole story here…
12 Scenes We Don’t Want to See SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds11X & LScenes We Don’t Want to SeeDo we really even need an OSHA standard to tell us there’s something wrong here?(a)(2) LADDERSRungs, cleats and steps shall be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced.Trainer's Notes:
13 Stupid Ladder Tricks Ladders and Scaffolds X & L 12 Trainer Notes: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds12X & LStupid Ladder TricksTrainer Notes:The point to be made about “stupid ladder tricks” is that we can only get away with them for just so long; and then there’s a fall.
14 More Stupid Ladder Tricks SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds13X & LMore Stupid Ladder TricksTrainer's Notes:
15 .1060 Training Requirements SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds14X & L.1060 Training RequirementsYour employer must train you.Trainer's Notes:If you are prone to “stupid ladder tricks” you definitely need training on ladder use and care.
16 Ladders (1926.1050 - .1053) Common OSHA Citations: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds15X & LLadders( )Common OSHA Citations:.1053(b)(1): Extension 3 feet above landing surface.1052(c)(1): Stairs with > 4 risers or >30” height are to have at least one handrail; stair rail on open side.1051(a): Stair or ladder for >19” break in elevation.1060(a): Training as necessary.1053(b)(4): Ladder use only as intended.1053(b)(13): Stepladder top step not to be used.Trainer's Notes:Review the Top Six Serious Citations.Ask the participants how each of the six hazards could be controlled or eliminated.How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?
17 Scaffolding for Roof Access SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds16X & LScaffolding for Roof AccessDepending on the type of job you may use:Frame ScaffoldsMobile ScaffoldsStair TowersLadder JacksPump JacksAerial Lifts such as Scissor Lift or ManliftUnder OSHA standards, these are all “elevated work platforms”.Trainer's Notes:Ask the participants about their experiences roofing from a scaffold and more commonly, getting to and from the roof via scaffolds. What are some of the things that can happen?
18 Scaffold Hazards The danger of falling is most common. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds17X & LScaffold HazardsThe danger of falling is most common.9% of construction deaths arescaffold-related.Scaffold falls injure 29,000workers every year.47% of all scaffold catastrophes and deaths are caused by defective scaffolds.Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe.Trainer's Notes:Emphasize the importance of safe access to the work surface. Ask: What are the possible variables leading to a fall?
19 How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds18X & LHow Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe?Supported scaffolds must have thesefeatures:Trainer's Notes:Begin a discussion of a safe scaffold “from the ground up” .
20 Firm Foundation Must have a foundation that is firm, square and level. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds19X & LFirm FoundationMust have a foundation that is firm, square and level.Support must bear on base plates and mudsills or other adequate, firm foundation.Must support load without settling or displacement.Must not use “unstable objects” as support.Base plates are always required, even on concrete.Trainer's Notes:The most basic variable – how was the scaffold set up – will it take the weight you intend to put on it – or do we find out after it’s too late? Remind the participants that this applies especially to stair towers, very often used for roof access. How much load is on the supports if 15 roofers all descend for lunch at once?
21 How to Make a Solid Foundation SUBPARTLadders and Scaffolds20X & LHow to Make a Solid FoundationLook for firm ground and sills to distribute the scaffold load.Trainer's Notes:We’ve stressed this point – but a solid scaffold has to start “from the ground up” and there are decisions to be made….HEEL TEST:If a 180-pound worker can dig a heel an inch into the soil, it will not support 1,600 psf.
22 Firm Foundation? Ladders and Scaffolds X & L 21 Trainer's Notes: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds21X & LFirm Foundation?Trainer's Notes:
23 Scaffold CapacitySUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds22X & LSupport its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL).Suspension rope & hardware, 6 X MIL.Stall load of hoist maximum 3 X rated load.Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design.Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A'Trainer's Notes:Scaffolding is a good topic in which to point out that practical concerns are clearly addressed in OSHA standards.8
24 Scaffold Capacity How much load do we need the scaffold to support? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds23X & LScaffold CapacityHow much load do we need the scaffold to support?Evenly distributed:Must support 4 X Maximum Intended Load.Trainer's Notes:Point out that the Safety Factor is not there to allow overloading.Here you might also discuss plank spans for situations where manufactured scaffold may not be used – such as a walkway onto a roof.Supported Scaffolds:Capacity determined bythe space between theuprights and plankthickness.
25 Capacity? Can we apply any of the “capacity” criteria here? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds24X & LCapacity?Can we applyany of the“capacity”criteria here?Trainer's Notes:Maybe a funny picture (Yes, it’s from West Virginia and No, the guy who built and used this was NOT barefoot) but also should serve to make the point that safety factors and consistency need to be maintained.
26 Bracing holds parts fixed in relation to another. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds25X & LBracingPoles, legs, frames and uprights must be plumb and braced.Trainer's Notes:Scaffold Inspection – who is doing it and what should they be looking for?Bracing holds parts fixed in relation to another.13
27 Plumb, Level, Square You can visually check scaffold alignment. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds26X & LPlumb, Level, SquareYou can visually check scaffold alignment.Plumb:Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon.Square:Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect.Trainer's Notes:Level:Horizontal members are parallel to horizon.
28 Mixed Manufacturer’s Components SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds27X & LMixed Manufacturer’s ComponentsCompetent Person decision required.Is scaffold structuralintegrity maintained?Trainer's Notes:Emphasize here that having the right equipment available, and properly maintaining and storing it goes along way towards avoiding these situations. However, once the material is at the job – Competent Person decision-making becomes extremely important.
29 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds28X & LKeeping UprightWhen suspended scaffold reaches a height that is more than 4 times its minimum base dimension, it must be restrained to keep from tipping.Guys/Braces at horizontal members.Guys/ties/braces in accordance with manufacturer or closest to 4:1 height.Ties repeat at 26 feet vertical; maximum 30 feet horizontal.Trainer's Notes:If you’ve had the participants follow the standard, point out here that we’ve looked at the basic variables to all scaffolds and now we move into specifics for supported as opposed to suspended scaffolds. Remind them that they should have training on each type of scaffold they use.
30 Tie-Ins to the Building SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds29X & LTie-Ins to the BuildingThis 6-tier scaffold isanchored to the buildingwith rope through windows.Trainer's Notes:Another very important and often abused scaffold issue – even a good scaffold with a solid platform needs to be secured against movement with ties that will resist any force put on the scaffold. This includes forces caused by the actual work.A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends.
31 Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds30X & LPlatform ConstructionPlatforms fully planked or deckedMaximum 1” gapsMaximum openings of 9½” if necessaryPlatforms and walkways minimum 18” wideLadder jack, top plate bracket, roof bracket, and pump jack scaffold at least 12” wideGuardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” wideTrainer's Notes:Get participants thinking about the actual platform they are working from. This might lead to a discussion of various kinds of plank/platform options. You should emphasis not only proper material but the importance of INSPECTION. For instance: How many people have worked off of planks that have saw cuts in them?9
32 What Makes a Safe Platform? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds31X & LWhat Makes a Safe Platform?Fully planked with scaffold-grade wood or metal.Trainer's Notes:Continue plank/platform discussion – some manufactured plank or platform literature would be useful to discuss (again!) the manufacturer’s intent and specifications.
33 What Is Scaffold-Grade Lumber? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds32X & LWhat Is Scaffold-Grade Lumber?It is free of defects.Trainer's Notes:Ask what kind of planks the participants are seeing on scaffolds. Are they rough sawn, or dressed, are they stamped “scaffold grade” ? Or, are they plain lumber – it is important that that the planks/platforms also have the 4:1 safety factor and that a scaffold plank is NOT just another board.Grading Stamps identify scaffold grade lumber in many parts of the U.S.Scaffold planks must be in good repair. Look for damage that reduces width, length, thickness, or strength. Replace damaged planks immediately.
34 Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds33X & LPlatform ConstructionFront edge of all platforms:Maximum 14” from the face of the work3” from the face for outrigger scaffolds18” from face for plastering/lathing operationsPlatform extension minimum 6”; maximum 12”>10 feet, maximum 18” past supportTrainer's Notes:Make the point that a work platform or, as is likely to be the case for roofers, an “access” platform, needs to be a surface you can move around on without looking down for fear of falling through or off of it….10
35 Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds34X & LPlatform ConstructionSupport for ends of abutted planksOverlap minimum 12” and only oversupports, unless restrained toprevent movement.On directional changes, platform onbearer at other than a right angle laidfirst, and platforms at right angles overthe same bearer laid second.Trainer's Notes:11
36 Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds35X & LPlatform ConstructionDon’t paint wood, except ID on edgesFully planked between front upright & guardrailsDon’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision]Don’t modify mixed scaffold componentsto make them fit [C.P. decision]No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approvalTrainer's Notes:12
37 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds36X & LPlatformsDo not use front-end loader to support scaffold platforms unless they have been designed for such use.Forklifts cannot be used to support platforms unless:The entire platform is attached to the fork, andThe forklift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.Trainer's Notes:Misuse of equipment to gain quick (and dangerous) access has been the cause of numerous accidents.
38 DON’T BECOME A STATISTIC!! SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds37X & LDON’T BECOME A STATISTIC!!Is this in any way a safe platform?Trainer's Notes:
39 Unsafe Anywhere… This is not the kind of teamwork we're looking for… SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds38X & LUnsafe Anywhere…This is not the kind of teamwork we're looking for…Trainer's Notes:Another “funny” – until someone falls and doesn’t get up – how can we eliminate the tendency to climb, and to reach, unprotected, off and off balance to get he job done.
40 What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds39X & LWhat’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold?Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights.Point Loading -When necessary, it should be done over uprights.Trainer's Notes:While roofers don’t typically load materials directly on a scaffold as masons do, it is still important to know what loads ARE being applied to the scaffold and how the scaffold is affected.Eccentric loads must be countered to prevent tipping.Evenly distributed –A good practice!An unsafe practice!
41 Safe Access Must have safe access SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds40X & LSafe AccessMust have safe accessNo access by cross bracesBottom rung not more than 24” highFrom other surface if within 14" H, 24" VRest platforms at 35’ intervalsSafe access for erectors/dismantlersCompetent Person Decision22" Horizontals OK for BuildersSome end frames can be used for access.Trainer's Notes:Another good point to stress – especially to roofers who are going to make a lot or trips up and down before the roof is done. Is it safe or are we again doing a lot of unstable “climbing”.16
42 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds41X & LSafe Access25% of scaffold accidents happen when workers get on or get off.If work platforms are more than 2 feet above a point of access, then stairs, ladders, or personnel hoists must be used.Trainer's Notes:You must never climb on scaffold braces or frames without built-in ladders.
43 3-Point Climbing on Scaffold Ladders SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds42X & L3-Point Climbing on Scaffold Ladders2 hands and 1 foot or1 hand and 2 feet on ladder.You must face the ladder.You cannot carry any loadthat could cause you tolose your balance.Use a gin wheel to hoistmaterials and equipmentonto the scaffold.Trainer's Notes:This is real basic and yet – how many of the participants STILL want to climb while carrying something?
44 Failure to provide safe access. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds43X & LFailure to provide safe access.Trainer's Notes:
45 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds44X & LUsing the ScaffoldNever overload: Lesser of Maximum Intended Load or rated loadInspected by Competent PersonNo shore or lean-to scaffoldsImmediately remove, repair, or brace if found substandardNo horizontal movement while occupied unless approvedMaintain clearance near powerlinesTrainer's Notes:17
46 Using the Scaffold No makeshift devices to increase height SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds45X & LUsing the ScaffoldNo makeshift devices to increase heightThe 'Drywall Bucket Rule'No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and:Side thrust countered, platform securedLadder legs on same platform & securedPlatforms should not deflect > 1/60 of spanTrainer's Notes:Making up for bad design/planning with bad behavior can only greatly increase the likelihood that someone gets hurt eventually!
47 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds46X & LUsing the ScaffoldErect, move, dismantle or alter only under the supervision of a Competent Person!No work on snow, ice covered platforms.Use taglines for swinging loads.Protect suspension ropes from heat, acidNo work during storms or high winds.No debris accumulation on platforms.Trainer's Notes:Competent Person, again stress importance of having the right person designated to make an informed, authorized decision….18
48 Power Line Clearance Keep 10 foot minimum unless de-energized! SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds47X & LPower Line ClearanceTrainer's Notes:If you have already covered Electrical, then just reinforce awareness of the ease with which contact can be made when the scaffold is too close. If not, then elicit some discussion/experience from the group – how often are they too close and how lucky have they been?Keep 10 foot minimum unless de-energized!
49 Lean-to Scaffolds are Prohibited SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds48X & LLean-to Scaffolds are ProhibitedThe old and the new, but still a‘Lean-To’Trainer's Notes:
50 Fall Protection for Scaffolds SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds49Fall Protection for ScaffoldsX & LPersonal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) or guardrails are required at 10 foot height.PFAS and guardrails are required on suspended scaffolds.PFAS is required for erectors/dismantlers where feasible.Trainer's Notes:19
51 Guardrails Guardrails prevent work falls. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds50X & LGuardrailsGuardrails prevent work falls.Only 33% of the scaffolds involved in accidents had guardrails.Toprails must be 38” to 45” above working platform.Crossbracing can serve as top or mid-rail depending on height.Trainer's Notes:Important here to stress not only having guardrails but keeping them in place.Mention that crossbracing can be used as top or midrail , providing the crossing pointis:inches above work platform for midrail, or- 38 – 48 inches for toprail.Toprail must withstand a force of 200 pounds (or 100 pounds on suspension scaffolds).
52 Personal Fall Arrest Systems SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds51X & LPersonal Fall Arrest SystemsPFAS used on scaffolds must beattached by lanyard, vertical lifeline,horizontal lifeline, or scaffold structuralmember.Vertical lifelines must be fastened to fixedsafe point of anchorage, independent ofthe scaffold. Do not attach two verticallifelines together or to same anchoragepoint.Horizontal lifelines must be attached to 2or more structural members of thescaffold.Trainer’s Notes:
53 Fall Protection for Erectors SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds52X & LFall Protection for ErectorsCompetent Person must take into account:Adequate Anchorage?Clearance?Work Practices?Motions Required?Equipment Available?Environmental conditions?Trainer's Notes:This is particularly important if any of the participants members are actually building scaffolds for roof access. Do they make a genuine evaluation of the possibility of using fall protection during building – or just assuming it can’t be done?
54 Falling Object Protection SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds53X & LFalling Object ProtectionHardhats requiredProtect employees belowBarricades to exclude working belowToe boards at edges of platformsManufactured or job-made with 1x6 or plankMay use panels, screens, or canopiesTrainer's Notes:20
55 Fabricated Frame Scaffolds SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds54X & LFabricated Frame ScaffoldsNew frames braced before moving platformsAlways plumb, level, square with bracing secured.Frames joined vertically by coupling pinsWhere uplift can occur - locked togetherSide brackets parallel; end brackets at 900Not bent or twisted; Personnel only, unless engineeredOver 125 ft. high requires engineer designTrainer's Notes:
56 Mobile Scaffolds Plumb; Level square; Braces secured SUBPARTS55Ladders and ScaffoldsX & LMobile ScaffoldsPlumb; Level square; Braces securedCross, horizontal & diagonal braces to prevent racking or collapseMobile scaffolds must comply with other frame requirementsCastors - positive lock on wheel and/or swivelForce to move no more than 5 feet above base53Trainer's Notes:If mobiles are being used – a good place for a discussion of poor practices, “bad behaviors” and serious consequences with moveable scaffolds, especially tip-overs due to movement while occupied, generally by the user from above.
57 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds56X & LMobile ScaffoldsHorizontal and diagonal bracing required to prevent “racking”.Most manufacturers provide with fixed length.Trainer's Notes:
58 Mobile Scaffolds Diagonal bracing; prevents “racking” SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds57X & LMobile ScaffoldsDiagonal bracing; prevents “racking”No platforms beyond baseScrewjacks or equivalent to levelCastor stems pinned or boltedNot moved with riders unless:Height: base ratio = 2:1 or designedSurface within 30 of level; no obstructionsOutriggers both sides if used; no extension beyond supportTrainer's Notes:
59 Ladder Jacks Maximum height = 20 feet Ladders and Scaffolds X & L SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds58X & LLadder JacksMaximum height = 20 feet PFAS required at > 10 feet. Ladders to meet Subpart X Ladders must be secured Platforms can’t be overlappedTrainer's Notes:
60 Ladders and Scaffolds X & L 59 Trainer's Notes: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds59X & LTrainer's Notes:In a situation like this, full body harnesses with lanyards and/or a catch platform would be suitable means of fall protection.Additionally, guardrails must be installed on the ladder-jack scaffold or have the employee use a full body harness.Reference: 29 CFR (b)(11) (fall protection – steep roofs) and (g)(1) (scaffolds).
61 Aerial Lifts “Catapult” action on quick drop expels user. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds60X & LAerial Lifts“Catapult” action on quick drop expels user.Fall Protection Required!Trainer's Notes:
62 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds61X & LAerial LiftsVehicle-mounted or self-propelled elevating work platforms – training is required!Trainer's Notes:
63 Tie-Off in Lift Attach lanyard to the provided tie-off point only. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds62X & LTie-Off in LiftAttach lanyard to the provided tie-off point only.Other Requirements:Stand firmly on basketfloor.Do not climb on basketedge.Do not use ladders orplanks.Trainer's Notes:
64 SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds63X & LAerial lifts provide a safe method of reaching your working area…as long as they are used appropriately.Trainer's Notes:This is definitely NOT the appropriate way to use an aerial lift or a stepladder.
65 What’s Wrong Here? Ladders and Scaffolds X &L 64 Trainer's Notes: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds64X &LWhat’s Wrong Here?Trainer's Notes:While tempting, the ease of spanning between machines to make platforms is only asking for trouble AND an OSHA citation…
66 Protect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety Practice SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds65X & LProtect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety PracticeDon’t allow tools, materials, or debris to collect on scaffold.Never, never throw or drop tools, materials, or equipment.Make sure connections are in place and completely tight.Do not stand on ties.Do not stand on guardrails or plank extensions.Do not overreach outside of the guardrails.Trainer's Notes:Basic review of good work practice and user behaviors…
67 Protect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety Practice SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds66X & LProtect Yourself With Good Scaffold Safety PracticeStay off scaffold during loading or unloading.Replace guardrails after loading or unloading.Use 3-point climbing.Don’t hang tarps without evaluation.Get off mobile scaffold before it’s moved.Never leave partially dismantled scaffolds unguarded or unlabelled.Wear the right clothing and safety gear.Trainer's Notes:
68 .454 Training Requirements SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds67X & L.454 Training RequirementsYour employer must train you.Trainer's Notes:
69 Scaffolds (1926.450 - .454) Common OSHA Citations: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds68X & LScaffolds( )Common OSHA Citations:.451(g)(1): Fall protection at 10 feet.451(e)(1): 2 foot max. vertical platform accessCross braces not to be used as access.451(b)(1): Full deck at all working levels.453(b)(2)(v): Fall protection in aerial lifts.454(a): Scaffold user trainingTrainer's Notes:Review the Top Five Serious Citations.Ask the participants how each of the five hazards could be controlled or eliminated.How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?
70 Review Questions True or False? LADDERS SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds69X & LReview QuestionsTrue or False? LADDERSStepladders can be folded and leanedagainst a wall and used as a ladder.Ladders must extend 2 feet above landing area.The proper ladder angle is 1:4.It’s OK to use the top step of a stepladderif you can’t reach.Ladders must be secured when used.Trainer's Notes:Answers:1. FALSE2. FALSE – 3 feet3. TRUE4. FALSE5. TRUE
71 Review Questions True or False? SCAFFOLDS SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds70X & LReview QuestionsTrue or False? SCAFFOLDSScaffolds and their components must support 3 times the maximum intended load.Only one or two planks are required for a work deck.3. You can access a scaffold by the cross braces.Trainer's Notes:Answers:1. FALSE – 4 times2. FALSE - platforms & walkways must be at least 18” wide.3. FALSE
72 Review Questions True or False? SCAFFOLDS SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds71X & LReview QuestionsTrue or False? SCAFFOLDS4. Guardrails or other fall protection is required at 10 feet or higher.A scaffold should never be less than 3 feet from an energized power line.6. In an aerial lift, you can tie off to an adjacent pole or structure.Trainer’s Notes:Answers:4. TRUE5. FALSE – 10 feet6. FALSE – Must tie off to boom or basket.