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Presentation on theme: "B EHAVIORIST AND H UMANIST T HEORIES Unit 5 Lesson 4."— Presentation transcript:


2 O BJECTIVES Review psychoanalytic theories. Compare and contrast behaviorist and humanist theories of personality development. Identify leading Trait theories.

3 W ARM U P If Freud said that pleasure drives personality formation, what did the others say drives it? Jung – Collective unconscious (archetypes) Adler – Inferiority Erikson – Socialization Horney – Security/Anxiety

4 A S URVEY … Give yourself one point for each of the following A responses: 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13 Give yourself one point for each of the following B responses: 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15 If your A score is higher than 5, you agree more with the behaviorist view of personality. If you B score is higher than 5, you agree more with the humanist view. Statement 10 can be interpreted as either view.

5 B EHAVIORIST / S OCIAL -C OGNITIVE M ODELS B.F. Skinner Response Tendencies - personality results from person’s history of reinforcement/punishment for behaviors Behavior therapy can alter undesired patterns of behavior Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory – personality is shaped through learning Observational Learning – learn by watching, including vicarious reinforcement and punishment Self-Efficacy – learned expectation of success Reciprocal Determinism – personality results from two-way interaction b/t person’s characteristics and environment

6 H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Alternative to negative, focus on positive Born with positive drive to grow & improve (inner-directedness). Strive for self- determination and self- actualization. Self-concept reflects perception of who we are and what we’re like.

7 H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs – humans strive to realize full potential once they have satisfied basic needs. Healthy personality: awareness/acceptance of self, openness & spontaneity, enjoy work, close friendships w/out dependency, sense of humor,

8 H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Carl Rogers Most important aspect of personality is self-concept: all thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about ourselves Real vs Ideal Self Incongruence – discrepancy between self-concept & reality Congruence – fairly accurate match To become fully functioning person we need to experience Unconditional Positive Regard - attitude of total acceptance toward another, loved & worthy no matter what Conditions of worth – requirements for earning positive regard (love) from others

9 R OGERS A CTIVITY Write down three traits or characteristics that best describe you. Find three other people and ask them what 3 words they would use to describe you.

10 T HINK -P AIR -S HARE In your notes, won’t be collected so be honest! Who is your most significant other at this time? Do you have UPR for this person? Explain. Does this person have UPR for you? Explain. Are there conditions of worth in your relationship? If so, what are they?

11 C HECK P OINT How do psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral perspectives of personality differ? Psychoanalysts emphasize unconscious forces in dvpt of personality Behavioral (or social-cognitive) theories emphasize impact of learning and cognition on dvpt. Humanists emphasize rationality and natural desire to be all we can be

12 T RAIT T HEORIES Basic Assumptions Each person has unique pattern of stable, long lasting traits (internal characteristics). Gordon Allport 4500 personality traits, or “dispositions” Central traits & Cardinal traits Raymond Cattell “16PF” Factor Analysis to reduce Allport’s traits to 16 “clusters” Degree to which we possess trait forms unique personality profile Root of all human behavior Hans Eysenck Hierarchy of traits Introversion-Extroversion, Emotional Stability, Psychoticism

13 “B IG F IVE ” T HEORY Openness Unusual, original thought Conscientiousness Efficient, ethical, reliable Extroversion Assertive, social, energetic Agreeableness Considerate, trustworthy, warm Neuroticism Anxious, worrisome, vulnerable

14 A CTIVITY : P ERSONALITY & TEMPERAMENT Go to fuspsych.wikispaces.c om Select personality Open personality & temperament

15 P LEASE U NDERSTAND M E Keirsey Temperament Sorter II Directions: Check A or B based on your gut instinct. Do not overanalyze the question, there is no right or wrong answer. Add down, totaling your A answers per column as well as your B answers. For boxes 3-8 you will need to transfer and add your A and B answers. Circle the letter with the greater number of answers. If you are tied, put a large X.

16 W HAT THE L ETTERS M EAN E = Extroverted S = Sensory T = Thinking J = Judging I = Introverted N = Intuitive F = Feeling P = Perceiving Jung’s Psychological Types

17 W HAT THE L ETTERS M EAN E / I : What is your source of energy? From Others Extraverted Expressive From Self Introverted Reserved Ambivert 75% Extra, 25% Intro

18 W HAT THE L ETTERS M EAN S / N : How do you gather info and see the world? Grounded in here and now, practical, facts Sensory Observant Future oriented, metaphor, innovative, imaginative Intuitive Introspective 75% Sen, 25% Int

19 W HAT THE L ETTERS M EAN T / F : How do you make decisions? With your head, impersonal & objective Thinking Tough-minded With your heart, personal & value based Feeling Friendly 50% - 50%

20 W HAT THE L ETTERS M EAN J / P : How do you go about daily life? Prefer closure and settlement Judging Scheduling Prefer open-ended, fluid options Perceiving Probing 50% - 50%

21 C LOSURE Go to and find your 4 letter combo or “personality type”. List some famous examples. Describe how it does or does not relate to you. What do you think about all of this personality “stuff”?

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