Presentation on theme: "1807-1817 The Trials of the Jeffersonians 1817-1824 The Era of Good Feeling? 1800-1806 The Triumph of the Jeffersonians 1801-1835 The Marshall Court."— Presentation transcript:
The Trials of the Jeffersonians The Era of Good Feeling? The Triumph of the Jeffersonians The Marshall Court
USHC 2.1 Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy… as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase…
Jefferson (R) 73 Burr (R) 73 Adams (F) 65 Pinckney (F) 64 TIEBREAKER: House of Representatives 1 vote per state The Election of
Jeffersonian Principles From Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “We are all republicans, We are all federalists.” REPublic = Government by REPresentatives Division of power between state governments and the central government (Difference is by Degree) Document 4.1
Jeffersonian Principles From Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “We are all republicans, We are all federalists.” DOMESTIC POLICY (Discontinuity) FOREIGN POLICY (Continuity) “…a wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement…” “…peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.” Document 4.1
1.Where, in the Constitution, is the power delegated to the President to add land to the United States? 2.To what extent did Jefferson compromise his strict constructionist principles by purchasing Louisiana?
[The President] shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur... From Article II, Section 2
USHC 1.7 Summarize the expansion of the power of the national government as a result of Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall, such as the establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison and the impact of political party affiliation on the Court.
After their devastating defeat in the Election of 1800, “doomsday” was quickly approaching for John Adams and the Federalist Party.
ELECTIONSUCCESSOR’S TERM 1801 In a “lame duck” session, the outgoing Congress meets and passes laws before the newly-elected members of Congress can take their seats.
The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. From Article III, Section 1
“Lame Duck” SessionLame Duck Sixteen new federal circuit judges Sixteen federal judges with life tenure would be able to undermine Jefferson and the Republicans from the bench.
Federalist Secretary of State (Adams Administration) Chief Justice of the Supreme Court “Midnight” Appointment John Marshall Chief Justice
William Marbury (Midnight Judge) James Madison (Secretary of State) (1803)
The judiciary, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous to the political rights of the Constitution... From The Federalist No. 78
(1803) John Marshall Chief Justice Marshall’s Dilemma
(1803) John Marshall Chief Justice Marshall’s Decision
Marshall: The Supreme Court can declare laws to be unconstitutional. (in this case, a federal law passed by Congress) John Marshall Chief Justice
Federalism Strict / Loose Construction? National Bank? Favored Economic Pursuit? Kentucky Resolution: Who interprets the Constitution? Marbury v. Madison: Jefferson (Republican) Marshall (Federalist)
Maryland had placed a tax on the Bank of the United States. The B.U.S. sued Maryland in protest BUS vs. Maryland John Marshall Chief Justice
1819 The Marshall Court ruled in the Bank’s favor. THE DECISION: John Marshall Chief Justice S UPREMACY C LAUSE S UPREMACY C LAUSE ELASTIC CLAUSE FEDERALISM IMPLIED POWERS
“The power to tax involves the power to destroy.” John Marshall McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 John Marshall Chief Justice
[The Congress shall have Power] To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States... From Article I, Section 8
The Marshall Court: Using Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden as guides, determine whether Chief Justice John Marshall would “Like” or “Dislike” the following items. NOTE: This exercise is based on the Facebook news feed. At no point does the author assert that the format is original. NOT INTENDED FOR COMMERCIAL USE
Thomas Jefferson Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America… by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States… constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government… 1798 · Comment · Like dislikes this.
James Madison The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite · Comment · Like dislikes this.
Alexander Hamilton A National Bank is an Institution of primary importance to the prosperous administration of the Finances, and would be of the greatest utility in the operations connected with the support of the Public Credit · Comment · Like likes this.
USHC 2.2 Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy… as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase… The Embargo and the War of 1812
FRANCE and allies BRITAIN and allies LAND POWER NAVAL POWER Continental System Naval Blockade of Europe
Early 19 th Century RAW MATERIALS FINISHED GOODS AGRICULTURE MANUFACTURING
RAW MATERIALS FINISHED GOODS AGRICULTURE MANUFACTURING
Art Credit: Art Credit:
TRADE OBJECTIVES: Economic Coercion Avoid War (Get Britain to stop impressing American sailors without going to war) RESULT: FAILURE NEW ENGLAND
HENRY CLAY (KY)JOHN C. CALHOUN (SC)
Harrison’s army defeats an Indian force associated with Tecumseh. Tecumseh W illiam H enry Harrison 1811
Americans blamed the British for arming Tecumseh and encouraging him to start an uprising against the United States. MADE IN CANADA
PROVOCATIONS 1.Impressment of Sailors 2.Cutting off Trade 3.Interference with Native Americans on the western frontier JAMES MADISON FOURTH PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. 1812
Where was the War of 1812 supported by public opinion? Where was it not supported?
1813 – Unsuccessful invasion of Canada 1814 – British send an army to Washington Map Credit:
August 24, 1814
THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER BY: FRANCIS SCOTT KEY (NATIONAL ANTHEM) THE FORT MCHENRY FLAG Our National Anthem
3 THINGS HAPPENING AT ONCE: Hartford Convention Treaty of Ghent Battle of New Orleans
WHERE?Hartford, CT WHO?Federalists WHAT? Amend the Constitution 2/3Embargo 2/3Declare War 2/3 Admission of New States NOConscription
HARTFORD, CT Delegates from several New England states met in Hartford to propose amendments to the Constitution. Dec – Jan. 1815
Status quo ante bellum The Treaty of Ghent restored things to the way they were before the war began. December 24, 1814
After Treaty of Ghent BritishU.S. Killed Wounded 1,26739 Missing TOTAL 2,04271 DECISIVE AMERICAN VICTORYGEN. ANDREW JACKSON Although the Battle of New Orleans took place after the Treaty of Ghent was signed, the Battle of New Orleans was important because the decisive victory gave Americans a sense of national pride. January 8, 1815
CONSEQUENCESGEN. ANDREW JACKSON Although the Battle of New Orleans took place after the Treaty of Ghent was signed, the Battle of New Orleans was important because the decisive victory gave Americans a sense of national pride. January 8, 1815
NOTE: This is the last election in which the Federalist Party participated in a national election.