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Treaty of Versailles & Interwar Period. 2 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points The idealism expressed in them was widely acclaimed Gave Wilson a position.

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Presentation on theme: "Treaty of Versailles & Interwar Period. 2 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points The idealism expressed in them was widely acclaimed Gave Wilson a position."— Presentation transcript:

1 Treaty of Versailles & Interwar Period

2 2 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points The idealism expressed in them was widely acclaimed Gave Wilson a position of moral leadership among the Allied leaders In order to secure support of his 14th, and most important, point, which called for the creating of an "association of nations," Wilson was compelled to abandon his insistence upon the acceptance of his full program

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4 4 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points 14 Points were for political and economic reconstruction 1. abolition of secret diplomacy by open convenants 2. freedom of the seas in peace and war 3. removal of international trade barriers wherever possible and establishment of an equality of trade conditions 4. reduction of armaments 5. adjustment of colonial disputes consistent with the interests of both the controlling government and the colonial population 6. evacuation of Russian territory, with self- determination

5 5 7. evacuation and restoration of Belgium 8. evacuation and restoration of French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine 9. readjustment of Italian frontiers along clearly recognizable lines of nationality 10. autonomy for the peoples of Austria- Hungary 11. ? 12. ? 13. ? 14. ?

6 6 Treaty of Versailles  Peace treaty signed (June 28, 1918) at the end of World War I between Germany and the Allies  Paris Peace Conference was the making of the Treaty of Versailles, which opened on Jan. 18, 1919  Represented were 27 countries, including the U. S., Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan  Neither the German Republic, which had replaced the imperial German government at the end of the war, nor Soviet Russia was invited to attend the conference  Germany signed only under duress  The U.S. signed but failed to ratify the treaty, negotiating instead the separate Treaty of Berlin with Germany (signed on Aug. 25, 1921)

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8 8 Treaty of Versailles  Germany also lost its entire colonial empire  Germany lost some 71,000 sq km or 13 percent of its European domain  Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France  Saar Basin was placed under a League of Nations commission for 15 years  recognized Danzig as a free city administered under the League of Nations but subject to Polish jurisdiction in regard to customs and foreign relations

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10 10  Germany was required to abolish compulsory military service  to reduce its army to 100,000  to demilitarize all the territory on the left bank of the Rhine River  to stop all importation, exportation, and nearly all production of war material  to limit its navy to 24 ships, with no submarines, the naval personnel not to exceed 15,000  to abandon all military and naval aviation by Oct. 1, 1919

11 11  Germany was required to make extensive financial reparation  Difficulty arose in collecting payment which was made in the form of –Money, Ships, trains, livestock, and natural resources  War-guilt clause stating that Germany accepted sole responsibility for causing the war  This aroused intense nationalist bitterness in Germany  The treaty also required provisional payments in kind and cash of 20 billion gold marks ($5 billion)  The Reparations Commission subsequently made a total assessment of 132 billion gold marks ($33 billion), which the Germans accepted only under duress

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13 13 The Versailles Treaty Negatives / Positives  A dictated peace (diktat).  Reparations were exorbitant ($33 B).  Artificial boundaries separating German people.  Polish corridor.  Took away colonies/resources  Some nationalities became forcefully separated  Germany was able to pay the amount asked: needed access to foreign markets.  Created new states that did reflect national autonomy.  Rebirth of Poland.  International body: The League of Nations  Captive peoples were freed. No other treaty ever released so many subject races from domination of oppressive empires  Major weapons were eliminated in defeated nations

14 14 Estimated Costs of the First World War (in US Dollars) Total for the Allied Nations $ Total for the Central Powers $ Grand Total $ This total equals to costs approximately $ for each day of the war and only includes the direct costs of conducting the war.

15 15  Germany was required by the Treaty of Versailles to pay reparations due it’s “moral guilt” in initiating the First World War. The commission established by the terms of the treaty set the total payment of reparations at: $ (US)  The commission also determined that this amount of money was to be divided among the victorious Allied nations as follows:  France: 52%  Belgium: 8%  British Empire: 22%  Other Nations: 8%  Italy: 10%

16 16 League Of Nations International alliance for the preservation of peace, with headquarters at Geneva International alliance for the preservation of peace, with headquarters at Geneva League existed from 1920 to 1946 League existed from 1920 to 1946 First meeting was held in Geneva, on Nov. 15, 1920, with 42 nations represented First meeting was held in Geneva, on Nov. 15, 1920, with 42 nations represented Last meeting was held on April 8, 1946 Last meeting was held on April 8, 1946 During the last meeting, the league was superseded by the UN During the last meeting, the league was superseded by the UN

17 17 During the league's 26 years, a total of 63 nations belonged at one time or another During the league's 26 years, a total of 63 nations belonged at one time or another President Woodrow Wilson presented a plan for a general association of nations President Woodrow Wilson presented a plan for a general association of nations The plan formed the basis of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the 26 articles that served as operating rules for the league The plan formed the basis of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the 26 articles that served as operating rules for the league The covenant was formulated as part of the Treaty of Versailles The covenant was formulated as part of the Treaty of Versailles

18 18 Although President Wilson was a member of the committee that drafted the covenant Although President Wilson was a member of the committee that drafted the covenant U.S. Senate never ratified the covenant because of Article X: all members preserve the territorial independence of all other members, even to joint action against aggression U.S. Senate never ratified the covenant because of Article X: all members preserve the territorial independence of all other members, even to joint action against aggression During the next two decades, American diplomats encouraged the league's activities and attended its meetings unofficially, but the U.S. never became a member During the next two decades, American diplomats encouraged the league's activities and attended its meetings unofficially, but the U.S. never became a member The efficacy of the league was considerably lessened without USA as a member The efficacy of the league was considerably lessened without USA as a member

19 19 The first meeting of the Assembly in 1920

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21 21 One important activity of the league was supervision of the former Germany and Turkey colonies/territories One important activity of the league was supervision of the former Germany and Turkey colonies/territories Territories were awarded to league members in the form of mandates Territories were awarded to league members in the form of mandates Mandated territories were given different degrees of independence, in accordance with their stage of development, their geographic situation, and their economic status Mandated territories were given different degrees of independence, in accordance with their stage of development, their geographic situation, and their economic status A new world concept had prompted the league's inception, that of collective security against the "criminal" threat of war A new world concept had prompted the league's inception, that of collective security against the "criminal" threat of war

22 22 Unfortunately for the fate of the world, the league rarely implemented its available resources to achieve this goal Unfortunately for the fate of the world, the league rarely implemented its available resources to achieve this goal League may be credited with certain social achievements such as curbing international traffic in narcotics and prostitution, aiding refugees of World War I, and surveying and improving world health and labor conditions League may be credited with certain social achievements such as curbing international traffic in narcotics and prostitution, aiding refugees of World War I, and surveying and improving world health and labor conditions In the area of preserving peace, the league had some minor successes, including settlement of disputes between Finland and Sweden over the Aland Islands in 1921 and between Greece and Bulgaria over their mutual border in 1925 In the area of preserving peace, the league had some minor successes, including settlement of disputes between Finland and Sweden over the Aland Islands in 1921 and between Greece and Bulgaria over their mutual border in 1925

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24 24 Although Germany joined the league in 1926, the National Socialist government (Nazi Regime) withdrew in 1933 Although Germany joined the league in 1926, the National Socialist government (Nazi Regime) withdrew in 1933 Japan also withdrew in 1933, after Japanese attacks on China were condemned by the league Japan also withdrew in 1933, after Japanese attacks on China were condemned by the league The league failed to end the war between Bolivia and Paraguay over the Gran Chaco between 1932 and 1935 The league failed to end the war between Bolivia and Paraguay over the Gran Chaco between 1932 and 1935 The league failed to stop the Italian conquest of Ethiopia begun in 1935 The league failed to stop the Italian conquest of Ethiopia begun in 1935 In 1935, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia condemns the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in his address to the League.Haile Selassie Ethiopia invasion of Abyssinia

25 25 Finally, the league was powerless to prevent the events in Europe that led to World War II Finally, the league was powerless to prevent the events in Europe that led to World War II The USSR, a member since 1934, was expelled following the Soviet attack on Finland in 1939 The USSR, a member since 1934, was expelled following the Soviet attack on Finland in 1939 In 1940 the secretariat in Geneva was reduced to a skeleton staff, and several small service units were moved to Canada and the U.S. In 1940 the secretariat in Geneva was reduced to a skeleton staff, and several small service units were moved to Canada and the U.S. In 1946 the league voted to effect its own dissolution, whereupon much of its property and organization were transferred to the UN. In 1946 the league voted to effect its own dissolution, whereupon much of its property and organization were transferred to the UN.

26 26 Never truly effective as a peacekeeping organization Never truly effective as a peacekeeping organization Lasting importance of the League of Nations it provided the groundwork for the UN Lasting importance of the League of Nations it provided the groundwork for the UN The United Nations formed after World War II, not only profited by the mistakes of the League of Nations but borrowed much of the organizational machinery of the league The United Nations formed after World War II, not only profited by the mistakes of the League of Nations but borrowed much of the organizational machinery of the league

27 27 Besides Manchuria & Abyssinia, Other L of N Actions

28 28 L of N Compared/Contrasted to UN Contained charters Contained charters Collective Action Collective Action Designed to promote peace Designed to promote peace Assemblies Assemblies Council Council Secretariat Secretariat Mandate commission and Trusteeship commission Mandate commission and Trusteeship commission No human rights in L of N No human rights in L of N League’s Council members had no veto power, but unanimity was needed. League’s Council members had no veto power, but unanimity was needed. No commission to supervise a free zone in UN No commission to supervise a free zone in UN

29 29 International Courts of Justice are same International Courts of Justice are same US a member of UN US a member of UN UN is more int’l UN is more int’l Headquarters based in New York, L of N was in Geneva. Headquarters based in New York, L of N was in Geneva.


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