Presentation on theme: "A Flawed Peace 16-3. A Flawed Peace Armistice did not mean end of the war, it meant end of fighting Jan 1919 27 countries met in France for peace conference."— Presentation transcript:
A Flawed Peace Armistice did not mean end of the war, it meant end of fighting Jan 1919 27 countries met in France for peace conference (Palace of Versailles) Treaty of Versailles negotiations lasted 5 months. Ended war w/ Germany Treaty of Saint-Germain ended war w/ Austria- Hungary
Treaty of Versailles “Big Four” Allies British PM David Lloyd George French Premier Georges Clemenceau Italian PM Vittorio Orlando U.S. Pres Wilson Russia not invited to peace conference
Russia Renamed Soviet Union Still having a civil war Wilson and Allies refused to recognize Lenin’s gov’t Mid-1918s U.S., G. Brit, and Japan sent troops to help anti-communists.
The Fourteen Points Wilson’s peace plan 1 st 5 points Wilson proposed to eliminate the causes of the war through free trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and diplomacy (no secret agreements)
The Fourteen Points 6-8 national self-determination (borders based on nationality) Alsace-Lorraine returned to Germany 14 th point Creation of League of Nations Wilson’s #1 goal Preserve peace by respecting territory and political independence
Treaty of Versailles France and Britain wanted to punish Germany France: wanted to end German threat forever Britain: refused to give up naval advantage Signed June 28, 1919 German armed forces reduced in size and not allowed to put troops west of Rhine River Germany had to take blame for war Germany had to pay reparations Owed Allied $33 billion Weakened Germany’s economy
Treaty of Versailles Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German, and Ottoman Empires all dismantled Didn’t implement freedom of the seas or free trade No colonial claims freed (changed ownership)
League of Nations League of Nations created Reduce armaments Submit disputes for arbitration Aid those threatened w/ aggression
U.S. Senate Rejects Treaty Treaties must be ratified by 2/3 of Senate Wilson need Republicans to sign, but he refused to take any Republicans to peace conference “Irreconcilables” “Entangling alliance” “Reservationists” Congress should be the only ones to declare war
U.S. Senate Rejects Treaty (con’t) Wilson campaigned for public support, but then suffered a stroke Senate voted both in 1919 and 1920 still refused to sign 1921 (after Wilson was gone) Separate treaty signed Treaty of Versailles never signed by U.S.