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AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 20 “COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS (1750-1914)” Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era.

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Presentation on theme: "AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 20 “COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS (1750-1914)” Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 20 “COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS ( )” Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era

2 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Education Many generated a new identity as a result of Western education = provided by missionary and government schools Education = helped many escape undesirable tasks, such as forced labor Education provided many opportunities:  Access to better-paying jobs in government agencies, missions, business firms, etc.  Access to imported goods and luxury items  Social mobility and elite status within the community  Equality with whites (as much as possible) Leopold Senhor West African writer and political leader in the early 1900s

3 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Education Many Western-educated people embraced other aspects of European culture as well:  Dressed in European clothes  Learned French or English  Built European-style houses  Got married in long, white dresses Education created a new cultural divide = between the minority who had mastered the ways of their rulers and the majority who had not The King of Siam and other young students, all dressed in European clothing

4 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Education Western-educated elites believed they were the key to modernizing their societies  Believed they could do so within a colonial framework and in association with colonial authorities These educated elites = had these hopes crushed  Europeans generally declined to treat their Asian and African subjects as equals  Europeans constantly referred to their cultures as primitive and backward  Result = Western-educated elites turned against colonial rule and foreign imperialism and became leaders in struggles for independence “Be the change you wish to see in the world.”

5 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Religion Religion = provided the basis for new or transformed identities Widespread conversion to Christianity in: New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, non-Muslim Africa, etc.  By the 1960s = about 50 million Africans had converted to Christianity

6 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Religion Attractions to Christianity:  Military defeat shook confidence in the old gods and local practices  led to openness to new sources of supernatural power  Christianity = associated with modern education (because missionary schools provided education)  Oppressed groups (young, poor, women, etc.) = found new opportunities and greater freedom with missions  Spread of the Christian message = mainly by African teachers and pastors, not European missionaries German Missionaries in Southwest Africa, c. 1910

7 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Religion In India = many turned toward a revived Hinduism  More distinct and unified Purposes of this revived Hinduism:  Provide India with an accessible religion on an even keel with Christianity  Provide Indians with a feeling of worth when faced with the humiliation of colonial rule  Uplift India’s village communities  Offer spiritual support to a Western world caught up in materialism and militarism Swami Vivekananda One of India’s most influential religious figures of the 19 th century

8 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Race New cultural identity = an “African identity”  Before = no one in Africa identified themselves as “African”  Based their identity on their: local community, religion, state/empire, etc. Goal = to revive the cultural self-confidence of people in Africa by creating a larger, common, and respected “African tradition” equivalent to “Western culture”

9 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Race Scholar Edward Blyden argued that: the world’s races are different, but each has its own distinct contribution to make to the world African CultureEuropean Culture Cooperative and egalitarian societiesCompetitive, individualistic, class- ridden societies Harmonious relationship with natureDominate and exploit the natural order Religious sensibilityReligious sensibility lost – more attention now to material gain

10 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Tribe Most important new sense of belonging that developed during the colonial era = the idea of “tribe” or ethnic identity Idea of an Africa sharply divided into separate and distinct “tribes” = a European idea  To help with colonial administration People even had to identify their “tribe” on applications for jobs, schools, and identity cards

11 Cultural Change in the Colonial Era: Tribe Africans gradually found ethnic and tribal labels useful  especially in large urban cities  Helped them to categorize themselves and others in these massive cities with a wide variety of people  Sense of security in being part of a tribe  Tribal and ethnic associations created to provide mutual assistance while in the cities Women from the Igbo Tribe of southeastern Nigeria


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