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Chapter 5.  Nationalism – a sense of pride in and devotion to one’s country  Pan-Africanism – called for unifying all of Africa – “Africa for the Africans”

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5.  Nationalism – a sense of pride in and devotion to one’s country  Pan-Africanism – called for unifying all of Africa – “Africa for the Africans”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5

2  Nationalism – a sense of pride in and devotion to one’s country  Pan-Africanism – called for unifying all of Africa – “Africa for the Africans”  Negritude Movement – encouraged Africans to value their heritage

3  The use of each was necessary because of the effects of colonization ◦ Faced problems of competing ethnic groups ◦ Politically needed to build national unity ◦ Combat the emphasis of family and ethnic ties over national unity

4  Gained independence through mostly peaceful means ◦ Boycott – refusal to buy certain goods or services  First leader – Kwame Nkrumah  1957 – gained independence ◦ First black nation to gain independence

5  Anti-colonialism  Desire for modern technology  Desire for same standard of living as Europeans  Creation of higher expectations ◦ No preparation made for independence ◦ Replace or weakened local leaders ◦ Disrupted traditional economy

6  Artificial boundaries ◦ Contained rival people ◦ Divided people of same ethnic groups ◦ Small nations  Difficult meeting economic needs

7  Positive changes ◦ Infrastructure – build roads, bridges, railroads, dredged harbors for larger ships ◦ Set up schools – created an educated middle class ◦ Introduced new farming methods and new crops

8  One-party rule ◦ Created due to belief that competing political parties created division in society ◦ Reflected tradition African values of discussion and consensus  Military rule ◦ Stepped in to restore order and get rid of corrupt leaders ◦ Often used harsh measures ◦ Often became corrupt themselves

9  Countries with stable governments at independence made the most economic progress  Joined movement toward democratization ◦ Democratization – accepting many different political parties

10  African Socialism ◦ Socialism – government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy  Mixed economies ◦ Most African nations now have mixed economies ◦ Major goal is to build factories and produce goods for their own use  Hope to reduce dependence of foreign imports

11  Multi-national corporations – huge enterprises with branches in many countries ◦ Invest in mining and large agricultural operations ◦ Some feel they are replacing colonial power in economic systems ◦ Make profits from exporting African crops and commodities ◦ Most profits flow out of Africa

12  Share similar economic goals to improve agriculture and build modern industries  Government programs neglect the needs of subsistence farmers  Most programs focus on cash crops  Food crop prices kept low ◦ Helps workers buy food but farmers suffer from low prices

13  Growing population causes fertile land to become exhausted  Drought has affected farm output ◦ Starvation

14  Major goal to reduce economic dependence  Export of one major crop ◦ Puts countries at mercy of world market prices  Few nations can produce enough ◦ Requires import of necessary goods ◦ Necessary to borrow money ◦ Difficulties repaying debts

15  Hurt by events outside their control ◦ Debt ◦ Drought ◦ Disease ◦ Civil war ◦ International conflicts  All work against economic progress

16  Population rose rapidly since independence ◦ Better healthcare ◦ Traditional value placed on large families  Rate of increase has slowed due to AIDS  Approx. ½ of population is under 15 ◦ Creates problems  Housing, schools, jobs

17  Growth of industry has led to rapid urbanization  Rural poverty has led to people giving up farming ◦ Want the benefit of urban life  Better jobs, improved housing, better schools, more healthcare

18  Urbanization has reshaped African societies  New urban elite ◦ Hold top jobs in government and industry ◦ Wealth, education and power set them apart  Small middle-class ◦ Office clerks and factory supervisors  Majority of urban population are poor workers

19  Urbanization has changed family life  Nuclear family ◦ Bonds of lineage and kinship are weakened  Marriage customs are changing ◦ Choose your own mate  Benefits of westernization are welcomed but encouraged to preserve traditional values ◦ Islamic revival to combat westernization

20  Have gained some rights  Help women get technical training and jobs  Rural areas life has changed very little  Deterioration in quality of life ◦ War, conflict, and spread of AIDS

21  Education has made for cultural change ◦ Encourages a sense of national unity  Government has built schools and trained teachers  Education challenges ◦ Drop out rate ◦ Few classes at higher level ◦ Cuts in spending for education

22  Nigeria’s oil wealth has resulted in corruption, pollution, and an increased gap between rich and poor

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