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The West and the World: Empire, Trade, and War,

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Presentation on theme: "The West and the World: Empire, Trade, and War,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The West and the World: Empire, Trade, and War, 1650-1850

2 The Rise of the British Empire
Seventeenth century - Britain acquired colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and trading posts in India Eighteenth century - British influence extends into Southeast Asia and the South Pacific The British empire had little administrative coherence, but a shared identity, as British subjects, united diverse colonies and territories

3 The Scattered French Empire
Paralleled British empire in North America and India, but with less success Decline of French power, due to military defeats and colonial rebellions, throughout the eighteenth century French expansion continued and increased in North Africa

4 The Commercial Dutch Empire
Acquired the majority of colonial possessions in early seventeenth century Possessions in Africa, North America, Asia, and the Caribbean The Netherlands became the center of the global economy Colonies were almost exclusively dedicated to trade

5 The Vast Spanish Empire
Spain controlled the greatest expanse of colonial possessions in North and South America, the Caribbean and Asia More centralized and authoritarian system of control than the British Bourbon reforms in the eighteenth century made the empire more efficient and profitable, but fueled colonial resentment

6 The Declining Portuguese Empire
Portugal had been the first European power to acquire overseas possessions Military weakness led to extensive losses of land to other European states Brazil experienced great economic and demographic growth Administrative reforms provoked colonial resentment

7 The Russian Empire in the Pacific
Russia was the only east European state to acquire an overseas empire in the eighteenth century Explorers and traders ventured into the Pacific Ocean After 1789, Russia founded a chain of trading posts along the Pacific coast of North America

8 Mercantile Warfare Mercantilism - decreased imports and increased exports, in order to monopolize world trade Protection and expansion of trade became the principal motive for warfare between European states Territorial expansion continued to fuel some military conflicts

9 Anglo-French Military Rivalry
A “second Hundred Years’ War” fought in Europe, Asia and North America Periodic naval and military engagements France lost the majority of its American and Indian possessions to the British Britain emerged as the dominant military, colonial and commercial power in the world

10 The Atlantic Economy Europe acquired agricultural products from the Americas - coffee, tobacco, rice, cotton and cacao American colonies acquired manufactured products from Europe The Atlantic Ocean became the commercial center of the world

11 The Atlantic Slave Trade
Slave trading was the basis of the Atlantic economy An unparalleled demographic occurrence - ca. 9.5 million slaves arrived in the Americas Distinctly commercial venture - slaves were dehumanized into commodities Slave trade declined when it became less economically worthwhile and provoked greater moral and religious opposition

12 Cultural Encounters in the Atlantic World
Creation of colonial societies with greater ethnic, religious and social complexity and diversity than western Europe Fostered an emergent idea of white racial superiority Transmission and exchange of political and religious ideas between Europe and the Americas

13 British Political Control of India
Military conflict in Bengal led to the British East India Company acquiring financial and political power in the province This prompted a cycle of ever increasing territorial acquisitions across India The Sepoy Mutiny, , led to the abolition of the East India Company and the imposition of direct rule from Britain

14 Changing European Attitudes Towards Asia
Widespread admiration and idealization of Asian culture, during mid-eighteenth century Exertion of Asian influences upon European art, architecture, fashions and design Negative perceptions of Asia increased in the later eighteenth century Emergent ideas of racial difference and white superiority were extended to Asians

15 The Crisis of Empire period of crisis and revolution against European rule British, French and Spanish lost the majority of their American possessions Movements for independence fueled by colonial resentment of distant metropolitan rule Influenced by Renaissance and Enlightenment ideas, and radical political theories

16 The Atlantic Revolutions
The American Revolution, The Haitian Revolution, The Irish Rebellion, National Revolutions in Spanish America,

17 The Rise and Reshaping of the West
The West expanded geographically and gained control of the world economy The Atlantic Ocean became the geographical center of the West American territories, even after their independence, became culturally part of the West Cultivation of a sense of Western superiority

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