Presentation on theme: "iClicker Questions Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914."— Presentation transcript:
iClicker Questions Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914
a. Japan’s industrialization b. Japan’s rejection of external expansion and its defense of other regional states threatened by Western powers c. Major reforms in the Japanese government d. The selective borrowing in Japan of western ideas
a. was no longer driven by the needs of trade because Europe produced all the manufactured goods that it required. b. did not bring cultural change because Europeans considered their culture of modernity beyond the capacity of non-Europeans to understand. c. never led to large-scale migration of Europeans. d. was backed by far more powerful militaries.
a. Japan was less reliant on Western finance than either the Ottoman Empire or China. b. Only Japan saw parts of its territory physically occupied by Western troops. c. Japan chose not to renegotiate its “capitulation” treaties with Western powers while both the Ottoman Empire and China did. d. Western powers considered Japan of far greater strategic and economic importance leading to more active Western intervention in Japan than either the Ottoman Empire or China.
1. Answer is B 2. Answer is D 3. Answer is A
To examine the ways in which Europeans created their nineteenth-century empires To consider the nineteenth-century development of racism as an outcrop of European feelings of superiority and to investigate the ways in which subject peoples were themselves affected by European racial categorization To consider the extent to which the colonial experience transformed the lives of Asians and Africans To define some of the distinctive qualities of modern European empires in relationship to earlier examples of empire
The British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, Portuguese, Russians, and Americans all had colonies. The period 1750–1900 saw a second, distinct phase of European colonial conquest. focused on Asia and Africa several new players (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U.S., Japan) was not demographically catastrophic like the first phase was affected by the Industrial Revolution
The establishment of the second-wave European empires was based on military force or the threat of using it. over the nineteenth century, Europeans developed an enormous firepower advantage (repeating rifles and machine guns) Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways. India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms
Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways: India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms most of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands: deliberate conquest decentralized societies without a formal state structure were the hardest to conquer Australia and New Zealand: more like the colonization of North America (with massive European settlement and diseases killing off most of the native population) Taiwan and Korea: Japanese takeover was done European-style United States and Russia continued to expand Liberia: settled by freed U.S. slaves Ethiopia and Siam (Thailand) avoided colonization skillfully Asian and African societies generated a wide range of responses to the European threat.
European takeover was often traumatic for the colonized peoples; the loss of life and property could be devastating. governments and missionaries promoted European education periodic rebellions racism was especially pronounced in areas with a large number of European settlers (e.g., South Africa) colonial states imposed deep changes in people’s daily lives colonizers were fascinated with counting and classifying their new subjects colonial policies contradicted European core values and practices at home
hundreds of thousands of workers came to work on Southeast Asian plantations millions of Indians migrated to work elsewhere in the British Empire especially in Africa, people moved to European farms/plantations because they had lost their own land South Africa in 1913: 88 percent of the land belonged to whites much of highland Kenya was taken over by 4,000 white farmers colonial cities attracted many workers segregated, unsanitary, overcrowded created a place for a native, Western-educated middle class created an enormous class of urban poor that could barely live and couldn’t raise families
colonial rule did help integrate Asian and African economies into a global exchange network colonial rule did introduce some modernizing elements schools health care What was the overall economic impact of colonial rule? defenders: it jump-started modern growth critics: long record of exploitation and limited, uneven growth
getting a Western education created a new identity for many the almost magical power of literacy access to better jobs social mobility and elite status many people embraced European culture many of the Western-educated elite saw colonial rule as the path to a better future, at least at first
widespread conversion to Christianity in New Zealand, the Pacific islands, and non- Muslim Africa around 10,000 missionaries had gone to Africa by 1910 by the 1960s, some 50 million Africans were Christian Christianity was attractive to many in Africa Christianity was associated with modern education Christianity gave opportunities to the young, the poor, and many women
Christianity was Africanized continuing use of charms, medicine men some simply demonized their old gods wide array of “independent churches” was established
Christianity did not spread widely in India but it led intellectuals and reformers to define Hinduism Hindu leaders looked to offer spiritual support to the spiritually sick Western world