2Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914 iClickerQuestions
3Connection: The encounter between Japan and the increasingly aggressive Western powers in the nineteenth century resulted in all EXCEPT which of the following outcomes?a. Japan’s industrializationb. Japan’s rejection of external expansion and its defense of other regional states threatened by Western powersc. Major reforms in the Japanese governmentd. The selective borrowing in Japan of western ideas
4Change: In comparison to the early modern era, expansion by industrialized nineteenth-century Europe a. was no longer driven by the needs of trade because Europe produced all the manufactured goods that it required.b. did not bring cultural change because Europeans considered their culture of modernity beyond the capacity of non-Europeans to understand.c. never led to large-scale migration of Europeans.d. was backed by far more powerful militaries.
5Comparison: Which of the following was NOT a factor that distinguished how Japan experienced Western imperialism as compared to the Ottoman Empire and China?a. Japan was less reliant on Western finance than either the Ottoman Empire or China.b. Only Japan saw parts of its territory physically occupied by Western troops.c. Japan chose not to renegotiate its “capitulation” treaties with Western powers while both the Ottoman Empire and China did.d. Western powers considered Japan of far greater strategic and economic importance leading to more active Western intervention in Japan than either the Ottoman Empire or China.
6Answer is B Answer is D Answer is A Answer Key for Chapter 19Answer is BAnswer is DAnswer is A
8Objectives in this chapter To examine the ways in which Europeans created their nineteenth-century empiresTo consider the nineteenth-century development of racism as an outcrop of European feelings of superiority and to investigate the ways in which subject peoples were themselves affected by European racial categorizationTo consider the extent to which the colonial experience transformed the lives of Asians and AfricansTo define some of the distinctive qualities of modern European empires in relationship to earlier examples of empire
9A Second Wave of European Conquests The British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, Portuguese, Russians, and Americans all had colonies.The period 1750–1900 saw a second, distinct phase of European colonial conquest.focused on Asia and Africaseveral new players (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U.S., Japan)was not demographically catastrophic like the first phasewas affected by the Industrial Revolution
10Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways. The establishment of the second-wave European empires was based on military force or the threat of using it.over the nineteenth century, Europeans developed an enormous firepower advantage (repeating rifles and machine guns)Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways.India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms
11Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways: India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firmsmost of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands: deliberate conquestdecentralized societies without a formal state structure were the hardest to conquerAustralia and New Zealand: more like the colonization of North America (with massive European settlement and diseases killing off most of the native population)Taiwan and Korea: Japanese takeover was done European-styleUnited States and Russia continued to expandLiberia: settled by freed U.S. slavesEthiopia and Siam (Thailand) avoided colonization skillfullyAsian and African societies generated a wide range of responses to the European threat.
12Under European RuleEuropean takeover was often traumatic for the colonized peoples; the loss of life and property could be devastating.governments and missionaries promoted European educationperiodic rebellionsracism was especially pronounced in areas with a large number of European settlers (e.g., South Africa)colonial states imposed deep changes in people’s daily livescolonizers were fascinated with counting and classifying their new subjectscolonial policies contradicted European core values and practices at home
13Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans hundreds of thousands of workers came to work on Southeast Asian plantationsmillions of Indians migrated to work elsewhere in the British Empireespecially in Africa, people moved to European farms/plantations because they had lost their own landSouth Africa in 1913: 88 percent of the land belonged to whitesmuch of highland Kenya was taken over by 4,000 white farmerscolonial cities attracted many workerssegregated, unsanitary, overcrowdedcreated a place for a native, Western-educated middle classcreated an enormous class of urban poor that could barely live and couldn’t raise families
14colonial rule did introduce some modernizing elements colonial rule did help integrate Asian and African economies into a global exchange networkcolonial rule did introduce some modernizing elementsschoolshealth careWhat was the overall economic impact of colonial rule?defenders: it jump-started modern growthcritics: long record of exploitation and limited, uneven growth
15Education getting a Western education created a new identity for many the almost magical power of literacyaccess to better jobssocial mobility and elite statusmany people embraced European culturemany of the Western-educated elite saw colonial rule as the path to a better future, at least at first
16Religionwidespread conversion to Christianity in New Zealand, the Pacific islands, and non-Muslim Africaaround 10,000 missionaries had gone to Africa by 1910by the 1960s, some 50 million Africans were ChristianChristianity was attractive to many in AfricaChristianity was associated with modern educationChristianity gave opportunities to the young, the poor, and many women
17Christianity was Africanized continuing use of charms, medicine mensome simply demonized their old godswide array of “independent churches” was established
18Christianity did not spread widely in India but it led intellectuals and reformers to define HinduismHindu leaders looked to offer spiritual support to the spiritually sick Western world