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Africa: The New Imperialism

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1 Africa: The New Imperialism



4 How is African Imperialism Different From Early Imperialism?
European countries had 3 motives for controlling land in Africa: 1 - control the export of raw materials and slaves 2 – Political competition with other European countries 3 – Social Darwinism and the “White Man’s Burden”

5 Quinine and Malaria Europeans left the interior of Africa alone for centuries even though it was just to the south of them They could not enter the interior because they would catch malaria, which they did not know how to cure The discovery that quinine could treat malaria allowed Europeans to conquer and control the African interior

6 How was Africa Divided? European nations set up colonies and brought in armies and navies to protect them Sometimes European leaders would lay down a map of Africa and draw out territories they wanted They did not care if they lumped together a variety of ethnic groups in their borders, they did not care about native struggles The Europeans recruited many natives into the army to protect the colonies The division of Africa led to very bitter rivalries both in Europe and among the Africans

7 Political Rivalries Some countries became very jealous during the land grab in Africa Raw resources and geographical features made some pieces of land much better than others Some native groups were much more friendly to Europeans than others Countries such as England and France saw their territory in Africa as a symbol of their national strength

8 Social Darwinism The idea that certain nations or races are more fit than others More fit nations, according to the theory, had a right to rule over less fit countries Some Europeans used this idea to justify taking over lands in Africa

9 The White Man’s Burden Term created by Rudyard Kipling, a British Poet
Describes how Europe thought about Imperialism as well as people from Africa and Asia Believed non-Europeans were “half devil and half child” Europeans had the “burden” of helping or improving the native way of life


11 How Europeans Changed the Natives
Converted many to Christianity Educated them in schoolhouses Taught them about hygiene, sanitation, and medicine Replaced native governments and rulers with European ones Brought European goods to native communities

12 What the Europeans got in Return from the White Man’s Burden
MONEY Slave labor Natural resources Larger Army and Navy More land

13 African Resistance Many Africans resented Europeans taking over their lands and trying to change their way of life Notable resistance movements Boer war The Zulu Ethiopia

14 The Boer War Boers were a group in South Africa who refused to acknowledge British claims to their land The British badly wanted the territory because there was gold on it When the British tried to take over the land, war broke out The Boers fought hard against the British army, but they were forced into concentration camps and defeated The territory became part of the British Empire

15 The Zulu Shaka Zulu built a strong kingdom by subduing enemies and preventing war He kept Europeans out of Zulu lands for 50 years When his son came to power, the British army attacked While the Zulu won a huge battle early on, the British army defeated them in about six months

16 Ethiopia Ethiopia’s leader, Menelik II, decided to modernize when he first encountered European traders Ethiopia modernized quickly and had built a strong military by the time Italy tried to conquer the country Ethiopia defeated the Italians and kept its independence throughout the Age of Imperialism

17 How African Imperialism Affected Europe
The governments became very wealthy very quickly and asserted their influence worldwide Country rivalries were intense, and there was major distrust among leaders Factories grew larger and created more jobs, which sparked a growth in the number of cities A large and prosperous middle class developed in most countries Factory workers pushed for more government regulations and labor unions gained more power

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