2Section 1 Vocabulary Pretest Made of one cellThe smallest unit that can perform all life’s processesMade of many cellsThe study of lifeThe high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world.Tiny structures inside living cellsA group of similar cells working togetherA group of tissues that work together to perform a specific job in a living thing.BiologyOrganizationCellUnicellularMulticellularOrganTissueOrganelle
3Biological molecule Homeostasis Metabolism Cell Division Development The sum of all chemical reactions in a living thing that take in and transform energy and materials from the environmentFormation of two new cellsChemical compounds made up of atomsA short segment of DNA that had coded instructions for a single trait in an organismTo produce new organisms similar to oneselfProcess by which an organism becomes a mature adultTo maintain stable internal conditionsBiological moleculeHomeostasisMetabolismCell DivisionDevelopmentReproductionGene
4Answer Key Biology D Biological Molecule K Organization E Homeostasis OCell B Metabolism IUnicellular A Cell Division JMulticellular C Development NOrgan H Reproduction MTissue G Gene LOrganelle F
5What is Biology? Biology is the study of life From the Latin: Bios = life and ology = study of
67 Characteristics of Life 1. Cellular OrganizationOrganization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world.All living things are made of one or more cells and these cells are highly organized.Unicellular = made of one cellMulticellular = made of many cells
7Atoms are the smallest particle of an element. They combine to form: Biological molecules which are chemical compounds that join to form:Organelles —Each of these tiny structures within a cell has a special job to do to keep the cell aliveThe cell is the smallest unit of lifeA group of cells working together make up a tissueA group of tissues make up an organOrgans combine to form organ systemsAn organism is a complete and whole living thing
82. Response to stimuliA stimulus is a sudden change in an organism’s environmentAll organisms must be able to respond or react to these sudden changes
93. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.
104. Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.Different organisms have different metabolic ratesDescribes as a fast or slow metabolism
115. Growth and Development All living things grow or increase in sizeGrowth results from the division and enlargement of cellsCell division is the formation of two new cells from an existing cell.Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult.A multicellular organism is composed of trillions of specialized cells, all which developed from a single cell, the fertilized egg.
126. ReproductionAll organisms produce new organisms like themselves. This is essential for the survival of the species.
13Hereditary information is passed from parent to offspring on the coded information molecule known as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.A gene is a short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism.
147. Change Through TimeAll populations of living things evolve or change through time. This is important for species survival in a changing world.This also helps to explain the diversity of life- forms on Earth.
15Section 2 Vocabulary Pretest Communities of living species and their environmentsBranch of biology that studies how organisms interact with the environmentLargest division in the classification of living thingsTraits that improve an individual’s ability to surviveTheory stating that organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and pass on those traitsSecond largest division in the classification of living thingsDescent with modificationDomainKingdomEcologyEcosystemEvolutionNaturalSelectionAdaptation
16Answer Key: Domain C Kingdom F Ecology B Ecosystem A Evolution G Natural Selection EAdaptation D
17Three Themes in Biology Three important themes help explain the living world and are part of biologyDiversity and Unity of LifeInterdependence of OrganismsEvolution of Life
181. Diversity and Unity of Life These terms seem to contradict each otherDiversity = variety. Over 1.5 million species of living things exist on Earth. They are extremely different from each other.Unity = similar. There are certain genetic similarities common to all living things, no matter how different they appear to be.
19All living things have a genetic code found in the DNA molecule. They share certain genes, yet no two types of organisms have the same full set of genes.A tree of life places organisms with more similarities in their genes on closer branches.All life is connected, yet there are different lineages representing different species.
20Most scientists also recognize six kingdoms: The three branches represent the three Domains in the living world: Archaea, Bacteria, and EukaryaMost scientists also recognize six kingdoms:ArchaeabacteriaEubacteriaProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia
212. Interdependence of Organisms Organisms interact with each other. Nothing can survive completely independent of another living thing.Ecology =the branch of biology that studies how organisms interact with each other and their environment.Ecosystem = communities of living species and their physical environments.
223. Evolution of LifePopulations of living organisms change through time or “evolve”Evolution =descent with modification. It is the process by which the inherited characteristics of a species change over time.Natural Selection = theory that states organisms with traits best suited to their environment will most likely survive and pass on those favorable traits. It explains how species evolve and new species emerge.Adaptation = traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive. Genetic variety allows some organisms to be born with favorable adaptations.
23Section 3 Vocabulary Pretest Forecasts what would happen in a testUsed to test a hypothesisOrganized set of steps used to solve a problemProvides a standard for comparisonThe act of perceiving somethingA proposed explanationA highly tested and generally accepted principle that explains an observationExperts critique each others workA.k.a. manipulated variableA.k.a responding variableGroup in which one factor is differentScientific MethodObservationHypothesisPredictionExperimentControl groupExperimental groupIndependent variableDependent variableTheoryPeer review
24Answer Key: Scientific method C Observation E Hypothesis F Prediction AExperiment BControl group DExperimental group KIndependent variable IDependent variable JTheory GPeer review H
25Scientific MethodThe scientific method is an organized set of steps used to solve problems:Make an Observation —perceive a natural occurrence which causes you to pose a questionState the QuestionHypothesize and Predict—give an explanation that tries to answer the question and then make predictions as to what would happen if the hypothesis were true.Experiment—design and run a test for the hypothesisAnalyze Data and Draw ConclusionsPublish Conclusions—so that others can verify, reject, or modify your results.
26The ExperimentA good experiment is called a controlled experiment. It has several parts:Control group —this group provides a normal standard against which results are comparedExperimental group —this group is identical to the control group except for one factorIndependent variable —the factor that changes in an experiment. Also called the manipulated variable.Dependent variable —the factor that is being observed or measured. Also called the responding variable.
27Data Scientists collect two types of data: Quantitative Data —data measured in numbersQualitative Data —data recorded as a description of somethingBoth must be detailed
28Scientific TheoriesA scientific theory is a highly tested, generally accepted principle that explains a vast number of observations and experimental data.Examples: Cell Theory, Quantum Theory, Theory of Relativity, Theory of Natural Selection
29Research Papers A typical research paper has four sections: Introduction —states the problem and hypothesis to be testedMaterials and Methods — describes the experimentResults —states the findingsDiscussion —gives the significance of the experiment and future directions the scientist will take.
30Microscopes and Metrics The microscope will be used quite often throughout this course. Proper use will be covered in a lab activity.The metric system will be used to take measurements in several lab activities. The metric system will be reviewed during that time.