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Research Methodology and the Scientific Method SUBTITLE.

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1 Research Methodology and the Scientific Method SUBTITLE

2 Class layout Discussed the scientific method Learned about types of research designs By the end of this lesson, we will have:

3 Pre-Activity THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD In pairs, use the following words to describe and diagram the scientific method ◦Hypothesis ◦Experiment ◦Research Question ◦Conclusion ◦Data ◦Results

4 Components of a Scientific Investigation Hypothesis Experiment Conclusions Data Research Question Scientific Methods DrawCollectInterpretDefineConductAnalyze FormDesign

5 Conventions of Writing Write like a scientist WordVerb PassiveNoun HypothesisFormFormulateWas formedFormation ExperimentDesign/ConductWas/ were designed/conducted Design ConclusionDrawWas/Were drawn DataCollect/ Analyze/ Interpret Were…..Collection Analysis Interpretation Research QuestionDefineProposeWas………. Example sentences: Data were analyzed using……. After the formation of the hypothesis……. The experimental design included……

6 Different Types of Research Design Quantitative Qualitative Descriptive Experimental Applied/Practical Theoretical

7 Different Types of Research Design Field Laboratory External Validity Internal Validity

8 Different Types of Research Design Theoretical research: a conclusion is drawn from what is already known. Not tested by observation or experiment Experimental research: experiments are conducted and the results used to draw conclusions. Field Experiments: Research is conducted on animals/ plants etc. in an artificial environment

9 Different Types of Research Design Laboratory experiments: research is conducted on a representative sample of the population as a whole. External Validity: is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity. In other words, it is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people. Internal Validity: Groups within the experiment are matched for all features except that being investigated to ensure that no other factor affects the results

10 Different Types of Research Design Descriptive Study: The research examines differences between populations over time to identify patterns or trends Qualitative research: The research is more subjective, collecting non-numerical data or explanations. It is often used to determine what exactly should be investigated further Quantitative research: Collects objective, often numerical, data to investigate an item’s effect

11 Variables Variable TypeDefinition IndependentDoes not change DependentChanges due Constants (Controlled)Factors to be Controlled ExtraneousVariables that may confound results

12 Constants and Controls Conditions to remain constant AgeTemperature Angles of incidence SampleTimeGender

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