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Published byDouglas Jeffrey Hall Modified over 7 years ago
I. Science is not
A collection of never-changing facts or beliefs about the world.
II. Science is
A way of knowing. An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
II. Science is A process. In the other words, a systematic series of actions directed at some end. Is subject to change and uncertainty – Scientists utilize current technologies to acquire the best understanding of the natural world.
III. Scientific Methodology
Is a series of actions that are utilized to acquire knowledge of the natural world.
III. Scientific Methodology Involves – Observing and asking questions Scientists use their senses to carefully notice and describe events. Scientists ask questions that no one has asked.
III. Scientific Methodology Involves Making inferences and forming hypothesis An inference is a logical interpretation that is based on prior knowledge. A hypothesis is a testable statement that is tested by observations or experiments.
III. Scientific Methodology Involves – Designing controlled experiments In a controlled experiment one variable is changed while others are kept constant or controlled.
III. Scientific Methodology – In a controlled experiment one variable is changed while others are kept constant or controlled. The independent variable is the one that is deliberately changed and may effect the experimental outcome. The dependent variable is the one that is kept constant and changes in response to the independent variable.
III. Scientific Methodology Designing controlled experiments – Controlled experiments have control and experimental groups. The control group is used for comparison. The experimental group is exposed to the variable that is being tested.
III. Scientific Methodology Involves – Collecting and analyzing data Data are detailed records of experimental observations or gathered information.
The main types of data are Quantitative Includes numbers obtained from counting or measuring. Qualitative Includes descriptions of what the senses have detected.
III. Scientific Methodology Involves – Drawing conclusions Conclusions are drawn from experimental data that supports, refutes, or revises the tested hypothesis.
Are not always possible. – Animal behavior experiments require field observations that disturb animals as little as possible. – Certain types of experiments are not ethical. Guatemalan subjects of US medical experiments
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