2 Scientific Inquiry Scientific Ideas Scientific Observations Models IncludesIncludesAre based onScientific IdeasScientific ObservationsModelsTheoriesLawsExperiment MeasurementsAllow you toPREDICTWhat will happen
3 Scientific Observations involve using your senses to describe the natural world. Observations use your 5 senses. The information that you learn through observation is called data.
4 An inference is a logical interpretation based on observations or prior knowledge.
5 An experiment is a test or trial that produces evidence you can use to help answer a question. Not all observations come from experiments. A measurement describes a quantity, such as time, length, distance, mass, volume, or temperature. Measurements always include a number and a unit.
6 Scientific Ideas are developed using evidence gathered from scientific observations. These ideas can be used to help you understand and explain what you observe in the natural world.
7 A model is a simplified representation of a part of the natural world that explains what that part looks like or how it works. A theory is a set of ideas that tie together many observations. Theories are based on ideas that have been tested and show to be true over time. Theories can change as new information becomes available. A law describes how some part of nature acts under certain conditions. Like, theories, laws are based on ideas that have been tested by observations and experimentation. Laws usually do not change.
8 A predication is a statement of what you think will happen under certain conditions based on what you know from observations or research.
9 Scientific Method Ask a question Do research Form a hypothesis Design an experimentGather dataAnalyze data and draw conclusionsCommunicate resultsIdentify questions for further investigation
10 A hypothesis is an idea that can be tested by an experiment A hypothesis is an idea that can be tested by an experiment. A hypothesis can be a positive statement (“All objects fall at the same speed”) or a negative statement (“Plants will not grow in the dark”). Some hypothesize are written as an “If ____ then ___ statement.” A hypothesis must be testable!
11 An experiment is a set of steps you follow to test a hypothesis An experiment is a set of steps you follow to test a hypothesis. Start by writing down how your experiment will be set up. Variables are factors that can affect the results of your experiment. Before you begin an experiment you must identify variables that can affect your results.
12 The variable a scientist changes is called the independent variable The variable a scientist changes is called the independent variable. The variable that is expected to change because of the independent variable is the dependent variable. To be sure that changes in the independent variable are causing changes in the dependent variable scientist test only one variable at a time.
13 All other variables must be kept constant All other variables must be kept constant. These variables are called the controls.
14 Scientific data can include qualitative (descriptions such as odor, color, or sound) and quantitative (numbers) descriptions.