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Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson A1-2 Designing and Conducting Agricultural Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson A1-2 Designing and Conducting Agricultural Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson A1-2 Designing and Conducting Agricultural Research

2 Objective Explain the steps in conducting research in agriculture.

3 Terms conclusions control dependent variable experiment hypothesis independent variable phenomena replication research research process scientific method treatment variable

4 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? Research is the careful and diligent search for answers to problems. The research process is a systematic approach for discovering the unknown. The process of scientific inquiry, or the scientific method, is a carefully controlled, systematic process for discovering the unknown. This process is used in all aspects of research.

5 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? A. The scientific method helps to ensure that conclusions reached through study are valid and reliable. 1. When conducting experimental research, all factors except the factor or variable under investigation are controlled, or held constant. 2. As a result, any observed results are due to the single variable being examined.

6 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? B. There are seven basic steps in the scientific method. 1. The first step is to identify the problem to be investigated. –Often, this is best stated in the form of a question. –The research problem should grow out of the researcher ’ s area of interest and personal experience in agriculture. –By choosing a problem in his or her area of interest, the researcher will find the experimentation process to be more enjoyable and more relevant.

7 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 2. The next step in the process is to predict the results of the experiment. –This prediction is called a hypothesis. –A hypothesis is a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables. –Generally, hypotheses should indicate the nature of the relationship between variables. –The researcher should utilize background knowledge and experience in this area to formulate a hypothesis. –Once it is made, the hypothesis is subjected to a test that attempts to isolate important factors.

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9 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 3. The third step is to design and conduct an experiment. –An experiment is a set of observations performed to solve a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis, or to research phenomena. –Phenomena are observed events. The following are factors to consider in the design of an experiment.

10 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? a. A variable is a characteristic by which an object or phenomenon may be described. –Variables change from time to time and may have more than one value.

11 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? An independent variable is a characteristic that the researcher believes will affect another variable. –It is the factor in an experiment that is manipulated. –Researchers manipulate an independent variable by managing its presence in the experiment. –The manipulation of an independent variable is known as the treatment.

12 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? A dependent variable is a characteristic that will be observed. –It is expected to change as a result of the independent variable. –Measurement of the dependent variable is critical to the success of the experiment. –During the phase of the experiment, the researcher must determine the most precise and appropriate way to measure the effect of the independent variable.

13 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? b. It is important that an experiment be controlled. Control is the process of holding factors constant. –It allows the effects of independent variables to be eliminated so that only the effects of dependent variables are measured.

14 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? c. It is critical that the design of an experiment match the stated hypothesis. –The researcher must make sure that the experiment answers the question stated in the first two steps of the scientific method. –The research design should also provide for replication. –Replication is the exact duplication of an experiment. –This allows the results to be verified across numerous trials, leading to greater confidence in the results.

15 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? d. After all design procedures have been followed, it is time to conduct the experiment.

16 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 4. The next step in the process is to collect data. –The researcher should consistently and precisely follow the previously determined methods outlined in the experiment design in the measurement and collection of data. –A pattern or format of collecting and recording data should have been developed in the design stage of the experiment. –Data summary charts are often used to record experimental data. –These charts should be as simple as possible, yet provide for all data to be completely and consistently recorded.

17 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 5. Once the data is collected, the next step is to analyze the data. –During this stage, data that was collected during the experiment is analyzed to be used later to draw conclusions. –The research will follow the procedures outlined in the experiment design stage in organizing the data. –This can be a very exciting stage of the research process as results of the experiment become evident.

18 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 6. Once the raw data has been organized into a useable form, the researcher can use that information to draw conclusions. Conclusions are determinations made by studying the results of work conducted. –The researcher must answer the question, “ Is my hypothesis correct? ” –This is done by looking for patterns in the data or by interpreting calculations performed on the data. –During this process, the researcher must also determine if there is any evidence to suggest the data might be inaccurate or might in any way misrepresent what actually happened in the experiment. –At this point, any limitations of the experiment must also be noted.

19 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture? 7. Depending on the nature of the experiment, the researcher may now be able to formulate recommendations based on the findings of the experiment. –Findings should be explained in detail through conclusions, written discussion, and recommendations. –Results of the experiment should be compared to results obtained from similar experiments. –Finally, based on the results of the completed experiment, the researcher should identify new research questions to explore through further experimentation. –Through this continuing cycle of questioning, experimentation, further questioning, and further experimentation, agricultural research is done.

20 What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture?

21 Review What are the steps in conducting research in agriculture?


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