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External Selection II CHAPTER NINE Screen graphics created by:

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1 External Selection II CHAPTER NINE Screen graphics created by:
Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

2 Staffing Organizations Model
Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Staffing Policies and Programs Support Activities Core Staffing Activities Legal compliance Recruitment: External, internal Planning Selection: Measurement, external, internal Job analysis Employment: Decision making, final match Staffing System and Retention Management

3 External Selection II Outline
Substantive Assessment Methods Personality Tests Ability Tests Job Knowledge Tests Performance Tests and Work Samples Integrity Tests Interest, Values, and Preference Inventories Structured Interview Constructing a Structured Interview Assessment for Team and Quality Environments Clinical Assessments Choice of Substantive Methods Discretionary Assessment Methods Contingent Assessment Methods Collection of Assessment Data Legal Issues

4 Overview of Personality Tests
Historical role of personality tests in selection e.g., MMPI Validity Misuse: intended for identifying psychological disorders Current role of personality tests e.g., role of Big Five Describe behavioral, not emotional or cognitive traits May capture up to 75% of an individual’s personality Big Five factors (Personality Characteristics Inventory etc.) Conscientiousness: persistent, planner, can be counted on Emotional stability: hard to annoy, hard to hurt feelings Extraversion: likes meeting new people, takes charge Openness to experience: likes new ideas, tries new things Agreeableness: forgives easily, sees good side of people Which of the Big 5 most likely to predict performance?

5 Measures of Personality Tests
Surveys Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) Exh. 9.1: Sample Items for PCI NEO Personality Inventory Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) Projective tests Interviews Assessment of reliability and validity

6 Predictive Validity of Personality Tests
Big Five factors Conscientiousness (broadly promising) Valid across almost all occupational groups; r = .31 Emotional stability (promising) Valid for many groups especially sales, management, & teaching Extraversion (some promise) Most valid for salespeople Openness to experience (virtually no predictive ability) Agreeableness (virtually no predictive ability) Limitations of using personality tests to predict?

7 Exh. 9.2: Possible Factors Explaining Importance of Conscientiousness in Predicting Job Performance

8 Overview of Ability Tests
Definition -- Measures that assess an individual’s capacity to function in a certain way Two types Aptitude - Assess innate capacity to function Achievement - Assess learned capacity to function 15--20% of organizations use ability tests in selection Four classes of ability tests Cognitive: perception, memory, reasoning, verbal, math, expression Psychomotor: thought/body movement coordination Physical: strength, endurance, movement quality Sensory/perceptual: detection & recognition of stimuli Give an example where each ability might predict

9 Evaluation of Cognitive Ability Tests
Validity approaches .50 Research findings Among the most valid methods of selection Often generalizes across organizations, job types, and types of applicants Can produce large economic gains for organizations and provide major competitive advantage Validity is particularly high for jobs of medium and high complexity but also exists for simple jobs A simple explanation for validity: those with higher cognitive ability acquire and use greater knowledge

10 Limitations of Cognitive Ability Tests
Concern over adverse impact and fairness of tests Cognitive ability tests are equally accurate predictors of job performance for various racial & ethnic groups, but blacks and Hispanics score lower than whites Why might blacks & Hispanics score lower? Is it OK to use cognitive ability tests if we monitor adverse impact closely? Is it OK to use differential prediction? Applicants’ perceptions Reactions to concrete vs. abstract test items

11 Other Types of Ability Tests
Psychomotor ability tests Valid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .50 Physical abilities tests Valid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .40 to .80 Sensory/perceptual abilities tests Valid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .40 but may not add to general cognitive ability prediction Note: Increasingly, ability tests are being computer administered

12 Job Knowledge Tests Two types
Assess knowledge of duties involved in a particular job (i.e., test the knowledge level) Level of experience with, and knowledge about, critical job tasks and tools necessary to perform a job (i.e., test the amount of experience with the knowledge areas) Evaluation Validity can be as much as .45 Higher validities found for complex jobs Job knowledge measures add little to prediction beyond that provided by cognitive ability tests but can help filter out those clearly not qualified

13 Performance Tests and Work Samples
Definition -- Assess actual performance (e.g., fix a car, teach a class, type a document) Types of tests (should focus on relevant KSAOs) Performance test vs. work sample (all or some) Motor vs verbal work samples (action or thought) High- vs. low-fidelity tests (level of realism) Computer interaction performance tests vs. paper-and-pencil tests including simulations (e.g., The Manager’s Workshop) Situational judgment tests (combinations of above) All the above can have good validity (.50+) & acceptance Discuss potential limitations of each of the above

14 Integrity Tests Two types Clear purpose / overt
General purpose / veiled purpose Use of integrity tests in selection has grown dramatically during past decade Construct of integrity not well understood Validity can be useful Clear purpose as high as .55 predicting bad behaviors General purpose as high as .32 predicting bad behaviors Can predict performance as well (as high as .30) Why would these predict general performance? Discuss limitations of integrity tests

15 Interest, Values, and Preference Inventories
Assess activities individuals prefer to do on & off the job; do not attempt to assess ability to do these Not often used in selection Can be useful for self-selection into job types Types of tests Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) Evaluation Unlikely to predict job performance directly May help assess person-organization fit & subsequent job satisfaction, commitment & turnover

16 Typical Unstructured Interviews
Relatively unplanned and “quick and dirty” Questions based on interviewer “hunches” or “pet questions” to assess applicants Casual, open-ended, or subjective questions Often contains obtuse questions Often contains highly speculative questions Interviewer often unprepared Validity typically very low (.20 at best) Discuss sources of error in unstructured interviews

17 Structured Interviews
Questions based on job analysis Same questions asked of each candidate Response to each question numerically evaluated Detailed anchored rating scales used to score each response Detailed notes taken, focusing on interviewees’ behaviors Validity may be .30 or better

18 Structured Interviews (continued)
Situational - Assess applicant’s ability to project his / her behaviors to future situations. Assumes the person’s goals/intentions will predict future behavior (validity averages .35) Experience-based - Assess past behaviors that are linked to prospective job. Assumes past performance will predict future performance (validity averages .28) Note: Individual interviews usually more valid than panel interviews

19 Constructing a Structured Interview
Consult job requirements matrix Develop the selection plan Exh. 9.14: Partial Selection Plan for Job of Retail Store Sales Associate Develop structured interview plan Exh. 9.15: Structured Interview Questions, Benchmark Responses, Rating Scale, and Question Weights Select and train interviewers Evaluate effectiveness

20 Assessment for Quality Environments
Companies with TQM missions often seem to ignore selection systems Issues to be addressed in selection process Types of skills may differ Specificity of skills may differ Process of making selection decisions may differ Lack of research on staffing in quality environments Validation of selection process is important

21 Assessment for Team Environments
Establish steps for selection in team-based environments Determine necessary KSAOs for teamwork Exh. 9.17: Knowledge, Skill, and Ability (KSA) Requirements for Teamwork Interpersonal KSAs Self-management KSAs Example Exh. 9.18: Example Items Assessing Teamwork KSAs Who should make the hiring decision? Critical to ensure proper context is in place

22 Clinical Assessments Psychologist makes a judgment about suitability of a candidate for a job Typically used for selecting people for middle- and upper-level management positions Judgments based on Interview Personal history form Ability test Personality test Feedback to company -- Narrative description of candidate, with or without a recommendation Can be valid but depends on the psychologist and his/her process Discuss pros and cons of this approach

23 Discretionary Assessment Methods
Used to separate people who receive job offers from list of finalists (assumes each finalist is considered fully qualified for position) Often very subjective, relying heavily on intuition of decision maker Factors other than KSAOs are evaluated Assess person/organization match Assess motivation level Assess people on relevant organizational citizenship behaviors Should involve organization’s staffing philosophy regarding EEO/AA commitments

24 Contingent Assessment Methods
“We offer you this job contingent upon ….” Contingent methods not always used Depends on nature of job and legal mandates Might involve confirmation of Degree Valid license Security clearance approval Drug test results Medical exam results

25 Drug Testing Alcohol & drug abuse costs U.S. $60 billion/year
Drug testing used by over 80% of major companies Characteristics and effectiveness Types of tests: body fluids, hair analysis, pupillary reaction, performance tests U.S. Dept. of Health/Human Services sets guidelines Drug tests can be accurate & reduction of drug use saves money and lives Smoking may be banned at work place but 1/2 of states prohibit off-job smoking discrimination

26 Example of a Drug Testing Program

27 Medical Exams Identify potential health risks in job candidates
Must ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason exists Ensures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened out Use is strictly regulated by ADA to ensure disabilities not job related are not screened out Usually lack validity as procedures vary by doctor Not always job related Often emphasize short- rather than long-term health New job-related medical standards are specific, job related, and valid

28 Legal Issues: Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP)
General principles Technical standards Documentation of impact and validity evidence Definitions Makes substantial demands of a staffing system Ensures awareness of possibility of adverse impact in employment decisions If adverse impact is found, mechanisms provided to cope with it

29 Legal Issues: ADA and Drug Testing
Selection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) General principles Access to job application process Reasonable accommodation to testing Medical examinations Drug testing UGESP Drug testing is permitted to detect illegal drug use and discipline/termination if found is OK

30 Medical Exams Identifies potential health risks in job candidates
Important to ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason exists Ensures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened out Use is strictly regulated by ADA Lack validity as procedures vary by doctor Not always job related Often emphasizes short- rather than long-term health New approach -- Job-related medical standards

31 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2
Do you think it’s ethical for employers to select applicants on the basis of questions such as, “Dislike loud music” and “Enjoy wild flights of fantasy,” even if the scales that such items measure have been shown to predict job performance? Explain. Issue 2 Cognitive ability tests are one of the best predictors of job performance, yet they have substantial adverse impact against minorities. Do you think it’s fair to use such tests? Why or why not?

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