2 Staffing Organizations Model Vision and MissionGoals and ObjectivesOrganization StrategyHR and Staffing StrategyStaffing Policies and ProgramsSupport ActivitiesCore Staffing ActivitiesLegal complianceRecruitment: External, internalPlanningSelection: Measurement, external, internalJob analysisEmployment: Decision making, final matchStaffing System and Retention Management
3 External Selection II Outline Substantive Assessment MethodsPersonality TestsAbility TestsJob Knowledge TestsPerformance Tests and Work SamplesIntegrity TestsInterest, Values, and Preference InventoriesStructured InterviewConstructing a Structured InterviewAssessment for Team and Quality EnvironmentsClinical AssessmentsChoice of Substantive MethodsDiscretionary Assessment MethodsContingent Assessment MethodsCollection of Assessment DataLegal Issues
4 Overview of Personality Tests Historical role of personality tests in selection e.g., MMPIValidityMisuse: intended for identifying psychological disordersCurrent role of personality tests e.g., role of Big FiveDescribe behavioral, not emotional or cognitive traitsMay capture up to 75% of an individual’s personalityBig Five factors (Personality Characteristics Inventory etc.)Conscientiousness: persistent, planner, can be counted onEmotional stability: hard to annoy, hard to hurt feelingsExtraversion: likes meeting new people, takes chargeOpenness to experience: likes new ideas, tries new thingsAgreeableness: forgives easily, sees good side of peopleWhich of the Big 5 most likely to predict performance?
5 Measures of Personality Tests SurveysPersonal Characteristics Inventory (PCI)Exh. 9.1: Sample Items for PCINEO Personality InventoryHogan Personality Inventory (HPI)Projective testsInterviewsAssessment of reliability and validity
6 Predictive Validity of Personality Tests Big Five factorsConscientiousness (broadly promising)Valid across almost all occupational groups; r = .31Emotional stability (promising)Valid for many groups especially sales, management, & teachingExtraversion (some promise)Most valid for salespeopleOpenness to experience (virtually no predictive ability)Agreeableness (virtually no predictive ability)Limitations of using personality tests to predict?
7 Exh. 9.2: Possible Factors Explaining Importance of Conscientiousness in Predicting Job Performance
8 Overview of Ability Tests Definition -- Measures that assess an individual’s capacity to function in a certain wayTwo typesAptitude - Assess innate capacity to functionAchievement - Assess learned capacity to function15--20% of organizations use ability tests in selectionFour classes of ability testsCognitive: perception, memory, reasoning, verbal, math, expressionPsychomotor: thought/body movement coordinationPhysical: strength, endurance, movement qualitySensory/perceptual: detection & recognition of stimuliGive an example where each ability might predict
9 Evaluation of Cognitive Ability Tests Validity approaches .50Research findingsAmong the most valid methods of selectionOften generalizes across organizations, job types, and types of applicantsCan produce large economic gains for organizations and provide major competitive advantageValidity is particularly high for jobs of medium and high complexity but also exists for simple jobsA simple explanation for validity: those with higher cognitive ability acquire and use greater knowledge
10 Limitations of Cognitive Ability Tests Concern over adverse impact and fairness of testsCognitive ability tests are equally accurate predictors of job performance for various racial & ethnic groups, but blacks and Hispanics score lower than whitesWhy might blacks & Hispanics score lower?Is it OK to use cognitive ability tests if we monitor adverse impact closely?Is it OK to use differential prediction?Applicants’ perceptionsReactions to concrete vs. abstract test items
11 Other Types of Ability Tests Psychomotor ability testsValid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .50Physical abilities testsValid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .40 to .80Sensory/perceptual abilities testsValid predictors for jobs that require such abilities with validity coefficients as high as .40 but may not add to general cognitive ability predictionNote: Increasingly, ability tests are being computer administered
12 Job Knowledge Tests Two types Assess knowledge of duties involved in a particular job (i.e., test the knowledge level)Level of experience with, and knowledge about, critical job tasks and tools necessary to perform a job (i.e., test the amount of experience with the knowledge areas)EvaluationValidity can be as much as .45Higher validities found for complex jobsJob knowledge measures add little to prediction beyond that provided by cognitive ability tests but can help filter out those clearly not qualified
13 Performance Tests and Work Samples Definition -- Assess actual performance (e.g., fix a car, teach a class, type a document)Types of tests (should focus on relevant KSAOs)Performance test vs. work sample (all or some)Motor vs verbal work samples (action or thought)High- vs. low-fidelity tests (level of realism)Computer interaction performance tests vs. paper-and-pencil tests including simulations (e.g., The Manager’s Workshop)Situational judgment tests (combinations of above)All the above can have good validity (.50+) & acceptanceDiscuss potential limitations of each of the above
14 Integrity Tests Two types Clear purpose / overt General purpose / veiled purposeUse of integrity tests in selection has grown dramatically during past decadeConstruct of integrity not well understoodValidity can be usefulClear purpose as high as .55 predicting bad behaviorsGeneral purpose as high as .32 predicting bad behaviorsCan predict performance as well (as high as .30)Why would these predict general performance?Discuss limitations of integrity tests
15 Interest, Values, and Preference Inventories Assess activities individuals prefer to do on & off the job; do not attempt to assess ability to do theseNot often used in selectionCan be useful for self-selection into job typesTypes of testsStrong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB)Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI)EvaluationUnlikely to predict job performance directlyMay help assess person-organization fit & subsequent job satisfaction, commitment & turnover
16 Typical Unstructured Interviews Relatively unplanned and “quick and dirty”Questions based on interviewer “hunches” or “pet questions” to assess applicantsCasual, open-ended, or subjective questionsOften contains obtuse questionsOften contains highly speculative questionsInterviewer often unpreparedValidity typically very low (.20 at best)Discuss sources of error in unstructured interviews
17 Structured Interviews Questions based on job analysisSame questions asked of each candidateResponse to each question numerically evaluatedDetailed anchored rating scales used to score each responseDetailed notes taken, focusing on interviewees’ behaviorsValidity may be .30 or better
18 Structured Interviews (continued) Situational - Assess applicant’s ability to project his / her behaviors to future situations. Assumes the person’s goals/intentions will predict future behavior (validity averages .35)Experience-based - Assess past behaviors that are linked to prospective job. Assumes past performance will predict future performance (validity averages .28)Note: Individual interviews usually more valid than panel interviews
19 Constructing a Structured Interview Consult job requirements matrixDevelop the selection planExh. 9.14: Partial Selection Plan for Job of Retail Store Sales AssociateDevelop structured interview planExh. 9.15: Structured Interview Questions, Benchmark Responses, Rating Scale, and Question WeightsSelect and train interviewersEvaluate effectiveness
20 Assessment for Quality Environments Companies with TQM missions often seem to ignore selection systemsIssues to be addressed in selection processTypes of skills may differSpecificity of skills may differProcess of making selection decisions may differLack of research on staffing in quality environmentsValidation of selection process is important
21 Assessment for Team Environments Establish steps for selection in team-based environmentsDetermine necessary KSAOs for teamworkExh. 9.17: Knowledge, Skill, and Ability (KSA) Requirements for TeamworkInterpersonal KSAsSelf-management KSAsExampleExh. 9.18: Example Items Assessing Teamwork KSAsWho should make the hiring decision?Critical to ensure proper context is in place
22 Clinical AssessmentsPsychologist makes a judgment about suitability of a candidate for a jobTypically used for selecting people for middle- and upper-level management positionsJudgments based onInterviewPersonal history formAbility testPersonality testFeedback to company -- Narrative description of candidate, with or without a recommendationCan be valid but depends on the psychologist and his/her processDiscuss pros and cons of this approach
23 Discretionary Assessment Methods Used to separate people who receive job offers from list of finalists (assumes each finalist is considered fully qualified for position)Often very subjective, relying heavily on intuition of decision makerFactors other than KSAOs are evaluatedAssess person/organization matchAssess motivation levelAssess people on relevant organizational citizenship behaviorsShould involve organization’s staffing philosophy regarding EEO/AA commitments
24 Contingent Assessment Methods “We offer you this job contingent upon ….”Contingent methods not always usedDepends on nature of job and legal mandatesMight involve confirmation ofDegreeValid licenseSecurity clearance approvalDrug test resultsMedical exam results
25 Drug Testing Alcohol & drug abuse costs U.S. $60 billion/year Drug testing used by over 80% of major companiesCharacteristics and effectivenessTypes of tests: body fluids, hair analysis, pupillary reaction, performance testsU.S. Dept. of Health/Human Services sets guidelinesDrug tests can be accurate & reduction of drug use saves money and livesSmoking may be banned at work place but 1/2 of states prohibit off-job smoking discrimination
27 Medical Exams Identify potential health risks in job candidates Must ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason existsEnsures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened outUse is strictly regulated by ADA to ensure disabilities not job related are not screened outUsually lack validity as procedures vary by doctorNot always job relatedOften emphasize short- rather than long-term healthNew job-related medical standards are specific, job related, and valid
28 Legal Issues: Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP) General principlesTechnical standardsDocumentation of impact and validity evidenceDefinitionsMakes substantial demands of a staffing systemEnsures awareness of possibility of adverse impact in employment decisionsIf adverse impact is found, mechanisms provided to cope with it
29 Legal Issues: ADA and Drug Testing Selection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)General principlesAccess to job application processReasonable accommodation to testingMedical examinationsDrug testingUGESPDrug testing is permitted to detect illegal drug use and discipline/termination if found is OK
30 Medical Exams Identifies potential health risks in job candidates Important to ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason existsEnsures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened outUse is strictly regulated by ADALack validity as procedures vary by doctorNot always job relatedOften emphasizes short- rather than long-term healthNew approach -- Job-related medical standards
31 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2 Do you think it’s ethical for employers to select applicants on the basis of questions such as, “Dislike loud music” and “Enjoy wild flights of fantasy,” even if the scales that such items measure have been shown to predict job performance? Explain.Issue 2Cognitive ability tests are one of the best predictors of job performance, yet they have substantial adverse impact against minorities. Do you think it’s fair to use such tests? Why or why not?
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