2 Staffing Organizations Model MissionGoals and ObjectivesOrganization StrategyHR and Staffing StrategyStaffing Policies and ProgramsSupport ActivitiesCore Staffing ActivitiesLegal complianceRecruitment: External, internalPlanningSelection: Measurement, external, internalJob analysisEmployment: Decision making, final matchStaffing System and Retention Management9-2
3 External Selection II Outline Substantive Assessment MethodsPersonality TestsAbility TestsJob Knowledge TestsPerformance Tests and Work SamplesSituational Judgment TestsIntegrity TestsInterest, Values, and Preference InventoriesStructured InterviewChoice of Substantive Assessment MethodsDiscretionary Assessment MethodsContingent Assessment MethodsDrug testingMedical examsLegal IssuesUniform Guidelines on Employee Selection ProceduresSelection Under the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)Drug Testing
4 Discussion Questions for This Chapter Describe the similarities and differences between personality tests and integrity tests. When is each warranted in the selection process?How would you advise an organization considering adopting a cognitive ability test for selection?Describe the structured interview. What are the characteristics of structured interviews that improve on the shortcomings of unstructured interviews?What are the most common discretionary and contingent assessment methods? What are the similarities and differences between the use of these two methods?How should organizations apply the general principles of the UGESP to practical selection decisions?
5 Ex. 8.3 Assessment Methods by Applicant Flow Stage Substantive assessment methodsDetermining who among the minimally qualified will likely be the best performers on the job9-5
6 Overview of Personality Tests Current role of personality tests e.g., role of Big FiveDescribe behavioral, not emotional or cognitive traitsMay capture up to 75% of an individual’s personalityBig Five factors (Personality Characteristics Inventory etc.)Emotional stability-calm, optimistic, and well adjustedExtraversion-sociable, assertive, active, upbeat, and talkativeOpenness to experience-imaginative, attentive to inner feelings, have intellectual curiosity and independence of judgmentAgreeableness-altruistic, trusting, sympathetic, and cooperativeConscientiousness-purposeful, determined, dependable, and attentive to detailRoughly 50% of the variance in the Big Five traits appears to be inherited
7 Measures of Personality Tests SurveysPersonal Characteristics Inventory (PCI)NEO Personality InventoryHogan Personality Inventory (HPI)Administration optionsPaper-and-pencilInterviewsOnline forms
8 Ex. 9.1 Sample Items from the Personal Characteristics Inventory ConscientiousnessI can always be counted on to get the job done.I am a very persistent worker.I almost always plan things in advance of work.ExtraversionMeeting new people is enjoyable to me.I like to stir up excitement if things get boring.I am a “take-charge” type of person.
9 Ex. 9.1 Sample Items from the Personal Characteristics Inventory AgreeablenessI like to help others who are down on their luck.I usually see the good side of people.I forgive others easily.Emotional StabilityI can become annoyed at people quite easily (reverse-scored).At times I don’t care about much of anything (reverse-scored).My feelings tend to be easily hurt (reverse-scored).Openness to ExperienceI like to work with difficult concepts and ideas.I enjoy trying new and different things.I tend to enjoy art, music, or literature.
10 Ex. 9.2 Implications of Big Five Personality Traits at Work
11 Criticisms of Personality Tests Trivial validitiesCorrelations for any individual trait with job performance are typically low (around r=.23)However, when all traits are used simultaneously, correlations are higherFakingIndividuals answer in a dishonest wayHowever, tests still have some validity, and it may be that being able to “act” conscientiously may be related to real job performanceNegative applicant reactionsApplicants, in general, believe personality tests are less valid predictors of job performance
12 Overview of Ability Tests Definition -- Measures that assess an individual’s capacity to function in a certain way15 to 20% of organizations use ability tests in selectionTwo typesAptitude - Assess innate capacity to functionAchievement - Assess learned capacity to function
13 Overview of Ability Tests Four classes of ability testsCognitive: perception, memory, reasoning, verbal, math, expressionPsychomotor: thought/body movement coordinationPhysical: strength, endurance, movement qualitySensory/perceptual: detection & recognition of stimuli
14 Evaluation of Cognitive Ability Tests Validity approaches .50Research findingsAmong the most valid methods of selectionOften generalizes across organizations, job types, and types of applicantsCan produce large economic gains for organizations and provide major competitive advantageValidity is particularly high for jobs of medium and high complexity but also exists for simple jobsA simple explanation for validity: those with higher cognitive ability acquire and use greater knowledge
15 Limitations of Cognitive Ability Tests Concern over adverse impact and fairness of testsEqually accurate predictors of job performance for various racial & ethnic groupsBlacks and Hispanics score lower than whitesThis gap is narrowing somewhat over timeAlternative presentation formats (e.g., verbal tests) decrease differences in scores dramatically while producing nearly equivalent scoresApplicants’ perceptionsReactions to concrete vs. abstract test items
16 Other Types of Ability Tests Psychomotor ability testsReaction time, arm-hand steadiness, control precision, and manual and digit dexterityPhysical abilities testsMuscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, and movement qualitySensory/perceptual abilities testsAbility to detect and recognize environmental stimuliNote: Increasingly, ability tests are being computer administered
17 Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actionA review of 59 studies indicated that, overall, EI correlated moderately with job performanceSome critics argue that because EI is so closely related to intelligence and personality, once you control for these factors, EI has nothing unique to offerStill not clear whether these tests are useful
18 Job Knowledge Tests Two types Evaluation Assess knowledge of duties involved in a particular job (i.e., test the knowledge level)Level of experience with, and knowledge about, critical job tasks and tools necessary to perform a job (i.e., test the amount of experience with the knowledge areas)EvaluationValidity can be as much as .45Higher validities found for complex jobs
19 Performance Tests and Work Samples Definition -- Assess actual performance (e.g., fix a car, teach a class, type a document)Types of tests (should focus on relevant KSAOs)Performance test vs. work sample (all or some)Motor vs verbal work samples (action or thought)High- vs. low-fidelity tests (level of realism)Computer interaction performance tests vs. paper-and-pencil tests including simulations (e.g., The Manager’s Workshop)All the above can have good validity (.50+) & acceptance
20 Situational Judgment Tests Place applicants in hypothetical, job-related situations.Applicants are then asked to choose a course of action from several alternativesCapture the validity of work samples and cognitive ability tests in a way that is cheaper than work samples and that has less adverse impact than cognitive ability tests
21 Ex. 9.7: Example of Situational Judgment Test Item
22 Integrity Tests Two types (Exhibit 9.8) Clear purpose / overtDo you think most people would cheat if they thought they could get away with it?Do you believe a person has a right to steal from an employer if he or she is unfairly treated?Personality-based/veiled purposeWould you rather go to a party than read a newspaper?How often do you blush?Scores appear to reflect conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability
23 Integrity Tests Validity can be useful Clear purpose as high as .55 predicting bad behaviorsGeneral purpose as high as .32 predicting bad behaviorsCan predict performance as well (as high as .30)Why would these predict general performance?
24 Interest, Values, and Preference Inventories Assess activities individuals prefer to do on & off the job; do not attempt to assess ability to do theseNot often used in selectionCan be useful for self-selection into job typesTypes of testsStrong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB)Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI)EvaluationUnlikely to predict job performance directlyMay help assess person-organization fit & subsequent job satisfaction, commitment & turnover
25 Discussion questionsDescribe the similarities and differences between personality tests and integrity tests. When is each warranted in the selection process?How would you advise an organization considering adopting a cognitive ability test for selection?
26 Typical Unstructured Interviews Relatively unplanned and “quick and dirty”Questions based on interviewer “hunches” or “pet questions” to assess applicantsCasual, open-ended, or subjective questionsOften contains obtuse questionsOften contains highly speculative questionsInterviewer often unpreparedMore potential for discrimination and biasValidity typically r=.20
27 Structured Interviews Questions based on job analysisSame questions asked of each candidateResponse to each question numerically evaluatedDetailed anchored rating scales used to score each responseDetailed notes taken, focusing on interviewees’ behaviorsValidity may be r=.30 or betterSurprisingly uncommon in organizations
28 Structured Interviews (continued) Situational - Assess applicant’s ability to project his / her behaviors to future situations. Assumes the person’s goals/intentions will predict future behaviorExperience-based - Assess past behaviors that are linked to prospective job. Assumes past performance will predict future performanceResearch is inconclusive regarding which type is bestIndividual interviews usually more valid than panel interviews
29 Constructing a Structured Interview Consult job requirements matrixDevelop the selection planExh. 9.10: Partial Selection Plan for Job of Retail Store Sales AssociateDevelop structured interview planExh. 9.11: Structured Interview Questions, Benchmark Responses, Rating Scale, and Question WeightsSelect and train interviewersEvaluate effectiveness
30 Discussion questionsDescribe the structured interview. What are the characteristics of structured interviews that improve on the shortcomings of unstructured interviews?
31 Selection for Team Environments Types of teamsProblem-solving teamsSelf-managed work teamsCross-functional teamsVirtual teamsEstablish steps for selection in team-based environmentsWho should make the hiring decision?Critical to ensure proper context is in place
32 Selection for Team Environments INTERPERSONAL KSAsConflict-Resolution KSAsCollaborative Problem-Solving KSAsCommunication KSAsSELF-MANAGEMENT KSAsGoal-Setting and Performance Management KSAsPlanning and Task-Coordination KSAs
33 Discretionary Assessment Methods Used to separate people who receive job offers from list of finalists (assumes each finalist is considered fully qualified for position)Often very subjective, relying heavily on intuition of decision makerFactors other than KSAOs are evaluatedAssess person/organization matchAssess motivation levelAssess people on relevant organizational citizenship behaviorsShould involve organization’s staffing philosophy regarding EEO/AA commitments
34 Contingent Assessment Methods “We offer you this job contingent upon ….”Contingent methods not always usedDepends on nature of job and legal mandatesMight involve confirmation ofDrug test resultsMedical exam results
35 Drug Testing The average drug user was 3.6 times more likely to be involved in an accidentreceived 3 times the average level of sick benefitswas 5 times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claimmissed 10 times as many work days as nonusers31% of all fatal truck accidents were due to alcohol or drugsDrug testing has decreased in recent years because so few people test positive
37 Features of an effective drug testing program Emphasize drug testing in safety-sensitive jobsUse only reputable testing laboratories, and ensure that strict chain of custody is maintained.Ask applicants for their consent, and inform them of test resultsUse retesting to validate positive samples from the initial screening testEnsure that proper procedures are followed to maintain the applicant’s right to privacyReview the program and validate the results against relevant criteria (accidents, absenteeism, turnover, job performance); conduct a cost-benefit analysis
38 Medical Exams Identify potential health risks in job candidates Must ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason existsEnsures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened outUse is strictly regulated by ADA to ensure disabilities not job related are not screened outUsually lack validity as procedures vary by doctorNot always job relatedOften emphasize short- rather than long-term healthNew job-related medical standards are specific, job related, and valid
39 Discussion questionsWhat are the most common discretionary and contingent assessment methods? What are the similarities and differences between the use of these two methods?
40 Legal Issues: Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP) General principlesTechnical standardsDocumentation of impact and validity evidenceDefinitionsMakes substantial demands of a staffing systemEnsures awareness of possibility of adverse impact in employment decisionsIf adverse impact is found, mechanisms provided to cope with it
41 Legal Issues: ADA and Drug Testing Selection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)General principlesAccess to job application processReasonable accommodation to testingMedical examinationsDrug testingUGESPDrug testing is permitted to detect illegal drug use and discipline/termination if found is OK
42 Medical Exams Identifies potential health risks in job candidates Important to ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason existsEnsures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened outUse is strictly regulated by ADALack validity as procedures vary by doctorNot always job relatedOften emphasizes short- rather than long-term healthNew approach -- Job-related medical standards
43 Discussion questionsHow should organizations apply the general principles of the UGESP to practical selection decisions?
44 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2 Do you think it’s ethical for employers to select applicants on the basis of questions such as, “Dislike loud music” and “Enjoy wild flights of fantasy,” even if the scales that such items measure have been shown to predict job performance? Explain.Issue 2Cognitive ability tests are one of the best predictors of job performance, yet they have substantial adverse impact against minorities. Do you think it’s fair to use such tests? Why or why not?