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© 2013 by Nelson Education1 Selection II: Testing
© 2013 by Nelson Education2 Chapter Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter you should: ◦ Have a good understanding of psychological tests and their use in selection ◦ Know the advantages and disadvantages of using some of the more popular selection testing procedures, including personality and ability testing
© 2013 by Nelson Education3 ◦ Understand the importance and limitations of cognitive ability testing ◦ Be able to understand the Five-Factor Model of Personality and its relationship to employment testing ◦ Be aware of controversial testing methods related to honesty or integrity, physical fitness, and drug use Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education4 ◦ Appreciate the potential of work samples, simulations, and assessment centres as selection procedures ◦ Understand how both test validity and test utility can be used to evaluate testing effectiveness ◦ Be aware of how job applicants may view the use of different employment tests Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education5 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.1 Points to Consider in Selecting a Test 1.Do a job analysis to determine the KSAOs that have been related to job success 2.Consult an information resource on testing to identify tests that are relevant to your job needs 3.Obtain information on several tests related to what you want to measure
© 2013 by Nelson Education6 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.1(continued) 4.Read the technical documentation to become familiar with how and when the test was developed and used 5.Read independent evaluations of the tests you are considering 6.Examine a specimen set
© 2013 by Nelson Education7 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.1(continued) 7.Determine the skill level needed to purchase the test, administer the test, and interpret test scores correctly 8.Select and use only those tests that are psychometrically sound, that meet the needs of your intended test-takers, and that you have the necessary skills to administer, score, and interpret correctly
© 2013 by Nelson Education8 Examples of Psychological Tests Used to Select Employees ◦ Personality Tests ◦ Honesty/Integrity Tests ◦ Tests of Emotional Intelligence ◦ Vocational Interest Inventories Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.2
© 2013 by Nelson Education9 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.2 (continued) ◦ Cognitive Ability Tests ◦ Aptitude Tests ◦ Psychomotor Tests ◦ Physical Ability and Sensory/Perceptual Ability Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education10 Abilities: enduring general traits or characteristics on which people differ and which they bring to a work situation Skill: an individual’s degree of proficiency or competency on a given task, which develops through performing the task Ability and Aptitude Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education11 Ability and Aptitude Tests (continued) Aptitude: a specific, narrow ability or skill that may be used to predict job performance
© 2013 by Nelson Education12 Cognitive ability tests: assess intelligence, general mental ability, or intellectual ability ◦ Abilities include verbal and numerical ability, reasoning, memory, problem solving, and processing information ◦ Paper-and-pencil tests available Cognitive Ability Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education13 Practical intelligence: the ability to apply ideas in “real world” contexts Tacit knowledge: derived from experience when learning is not the primary objective Job knowledge: knowledgeable of issues and/or procedures deemed essential for successful job performance Practical Intelligence/Job Knowledge
© 2013 by Nelson Education14 Emotional intelligence: the ability to accurately perceive and appraise emotion in oneself and others; to appropriately regulate and express emotion Emotional Intelligence
© 2013 by Nelson Education15 1. Is emotional intelligence more important than the aptitude/skill required for the job? 2. Explain why or why not. Class Activity
© 2013 by Nelson Education16 Psychomotor abilities: traits or characteristics that involve the control of muscle movements ◦ Examples include finger dexterity Multi-limb coordination reaction time arm-hand steadiness manual dexterity Psychomotor Abilities
© 2013 by Nelson Education17 Physical abilities: traits or characteristics that involve the use or application of muscle force over varying periods of time, either alone or in conjunction with an ability to maintain balance or gross body coordination Physical and Sensory/Perceptual Ability Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education18 Physical and Sensory/Perceptual Ability Tests (continued) Sensory/perceptual abilities: traits or characteristics that involve different aspects of vision and audition, as well as the other senses
© 2013 by Nelson Education19 Physical fitness tests: ensure that an applicant meets minimum standards of health to cope with the physical demands of the job ◦ Tests should be administered only after the applicant has been given an offer of employment ◦ Offer of employment made conditional on the applicant’s passing the test or exam Physical Fitness and Medical Examinations
© 2013 by Nelson Education20 Random or mandatory drug testing by Canadian companies is not common It is discriminatory, unless it ties directly to the job Substance abuse on the part of employees is considered a disability that must be accommodated Drug and Alcohol Testing
© 2013 by Nelson Education21 Tend to be used to assess skills and competencies Require the job candidate to produce behaviours related to job performance under controlled conditions that approximate those found in the job Work Samples and Simulation Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education22 Situation exercises: assess aptitude or proficiency in performing important job tasks by using tasks that are abstract and less realistic than those performed on the actual job ◦ Designed to assess problem-solving ability, leadership potential, and communication skills Situation Exercises
© 2013 by Nelson Education23 Situation judgment test: a type of situational exercise designed to measure an applicant’s judgement in workplace or professional situations; paper-and-pencil tests that ask job candidates how they would respond in different workplace situations Situational Judgment Test
© 2013 by Nelson Education24 Assessment centre: a standardized procedure that involves the use of multiple measurement techniques ◦ Multiple assessors to evaluate candidates for selection, classification, and promotion Assessment Centres
© 2013 by Nelson Education25 Essential Elements of an Assessment Centre 1.Job analysis is used to identify job dimensions, tasks, and attributes that are important to job success 2.Behaviour displayed by candidates must be categorized by trained assessors and related to dimensions, aptitudes, attributes, or KSAOs Recruitment and Selection Today 8.4
© 2013 by Nelson Education26 Recruitment and Selection Today 8.4 (continued) 3.Assessment techniques must provide information related to the dimensions and attributes identified in the job analysis 4.Multiple assessment procedures are used to elicit a variety of behaviours and information relevant to the selected dimensions and attributes 5.A sufficient number of job-related simulations must be included in the procedure to allow opportunities to observe behaviour on the selected dimensions
© 2013 by Nelson Education27 Recruitment and Selection Today 8.4 (continued) 6.Multiple assessors, diverse in ethnicity, age, gender, and functional work areas, are used to observe and assess each candidate 7.Assessors must receive thorough training and meet performance standards before being allowed to evaluate candidates 8.Systematic procedures must be used by assessors to record specific behavioural observations accurately at the time of their occurrence.
© 2013 by Nelson Education28 Recruitment and Selection Today 8.4 9.Assessors must prepare a report or record of observations made during each exercise in preparation for consolidating information across assessors 10.Data from all assessor reports must be pooled or integrated either at a special meeting of assessors or through statistical methods
© 2013 by Nelson Education29 1. What types of employment tests have you completed? 2. What did you think about the process? Class Activity
© 2013 by Nelson Education30 Personality: a set of characteristics or properties that influence, or help to explain an individual’s behaviour Personality traits: stable, measurable characteristics that help explain ways in which people vary Personality Tests
© 2013 by Nelson Education31 Personality Tests (continued) Self-report inventory: short, written statements related to various personality traits
© 2013 by Nelson Education32 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 8.4 The Big Five Personality Dimensions ◦ Conscientiousness ◦ Emotional stability ◦ Openness to experience ◦ Agreeableness ◦ Extroversion
© 2013 by Nelson Education33 Honesty/integrity testing: self-report inventories designed to assess employee honesty and reliability ◦ Increasingly popular method of screening out potentially dishonest employees Honesty/Integrity Testing
© 2013 by Nelson Education34 Psychological testing is carried out for the selection of personnel Employment testing must meet acceptable professional and legal standards All tests should tie directly to the job description and standards required Summary
© 2013 by Nelson Education35 Summary (continued) Variety of tests available (e.g., ability, aptitude, work samples/simulations, personality) Ensure tests are valid and reliable
© 2013 by Nelson Education36 1. Why must anyone working the area of HR be familiar with the professional and legal standards that govern the use of employment tests? 2. What is the Big Five model of personality and what is its relationship to employment testing? Discussion Questions
© 2013 by Nelson Education37 3. Why is honesty or integrity testing controversial? When and how should these tests be used? 4. Is an employer free to test for physical fitness or drug use before making a job offer? Explain your answer. Discussion Questions (continued)
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