RELIABILITY ä How accurately the tool measures the attribute ä The extent to which it is free of error ä The degree of dependability, consistency or stability of measurement of a measure ä Reliability coefficient = % of obtained score due to true score
TYPES OF RELIABILITY Ê Test-retest reliability ä Assesses stability over time/situations Ë Internal consistency reliability ä Assesses sampling error/consistency of content Ì Parallel forms reliability ä Assesses equivalence of measures
VALIDITY ä The extent to which a staffing method predicts one or more important criterion ä Primary method of demonstrating job- relatedness ä Reliability vs. validity?
METHODS OF VALIDATION ä Criterion (Empirical) ä Showing a statistical relationship between scores and job performance. ä Two approaches: Concurrent or predictive ä Limitations? ä ä ä Content ä Showing a logical relationship between predictor content and job content ä Limitations? ä Validity generalization
APPLICANT REACTIONS ä Applicants perceptions of fairness influence job acceptance and subsequent performance ä What influences perceived fairness? ä ä ä ä ä
Arguments Against Personality ä ä ä ä
Conscientiousness ä Descriptors: ä Organized, Systematic, Thorough, Practical, Neat, Efficient, Careful, Steady ä NOT Careless, Undependable, Haphazard, Sloppy ä Most consistent personality predictor of performance ä Also predicts lack of problem behavior
Emotional Stability ä Descriptors ä NOT Anxious, Moody, Temperamental, Emotional, Nervous, Touchy, Fearful ä May predict job performance in jobs…
Agreeableness ä Descriptors ä Kind, Cooperative, Sympathetic, Warm, Trustful, Considerate, Pleasant, Helpful ä May predict job performance in jobs…
1. Differences between groups’ average test scores ä ~1 SD difference for Blacks ä ~.75 SD for Hispanics But what do these differences mean? Definitions of Test “Fairness” Differential Validity? Test Bias? Test is fair
Definitions of Test “Fairness” 2. Differential Validity: Group differences in validity of test White Black Test Scores Job Perf
Definitions of Test “Fairness” 3. Test Bias: Group differences in predicted job performance with same cutoff score Black Test Scores Job Perf White
Typical CA Test Situation ä Adverse Impact ä No differential validity ä No test bias White Black Test Scores Job Perf
OPTIONS? ä ä ä ä
Basic Assumptions ä ä
Negligent Hiring A violation of an employer’s common law duty to protect its employees and customers from injury by hiring an employee it knew (or should have known) posed a threat of risk. A violation of an employer’s common law duty to protect its employees and customers from injury by hiring an employee it knew (or should have known) posed a threat of risk.
Defamation of Character The offense of injuring a person’s character, fame, or reputation by false and malicious statements The offense of injuring a person’s character, fame, or reputation by false and malicious statements Negligent Referral Companies may be liable for not fully and truthfully disclosing knowledge about a past employee’s potential for causing harm
Recommendations -Reference Seekers ä Ask for only job-related information ä Obtain from knowledgeable source ä Document procedures & information ä Obtain written permission of applicant ä Check multiple references ä Verify negative information
The Paradox of Interviews ä The most widely-used hiring tool among practitioners ä Yet are widely criticized by researchers ä unreliable ä susceptible to bias ä poor validity
Why are Interviews So Popular? ä ä ä ä ä ä ä
Problems with Interviews ä Lack of structure/standardization ä Opportunity for bias ä Impression driven ä Interview behavior may not reflect KSAs
Types of Structured Interviews ä Behavior Description interviewing ä How have you handled situations before? ä Situational interviewing ä How would you respond to hypothetical job situation? ä Case interviews ä Can you demonstrate reasoning skills in logic puzzle questions?
Benefits of Structured Interviews ä Increases job relatedness ä Ensures that interviewers are aware of KSAs ä Also easier to document if needed ä Reduces disparate treatment ä Increases reliability ä Reduces problems of coaching