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External Selection I CHAPTER EIGHT Screen graphics created by:

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1 External Selection I CHAPTER EIGHT Screen graphics created by:
Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

2 Staffing Organizations Model
Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Staffing Policies and Programs Support Activities Core Staffing Activities Legal compliance Recruitment: External, internal Planning Selection: Measurement, external, internal Job analysis Employment: Decision making, final match Staffing System and Retention Management

3 Chapter Outline Preliminary Issues Initial Assessment Methods
Logic of Prediction Nature of Predictors Development of the Selection Plan Selection Sequence Initial Assessment Methods Resumes and Cover Letters Application Blanks Biographical Information Initial Assessment Methods References and Background Checks Handwriting Analysis Literacy Testing Genetic Testing Initial Interview Choice of Methods Legal Issues

4 Preliminary Issues Logic of prediction Nature of predictors
Development of the selection plan Selection sequence

5 Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance
Previous job(s) Current job Nonjob Past Situations New Situation (job) Attraction Performance Satisfaction Retention Attendance HR Outcomes Person KSAOs Motivation Sample Predict

6 Nature of Predictors Content
Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality) Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to performance Criterion: Actual measure of prior performance Form Speed vs. power: How many versus what level Paper / pencil vs. performance: Test in writing or in behavior Objective vs. essay: Much like multiple-choice vs. essay course exam questions Oral vs. written vs. computer: How data are obtained

7 Development of the Selection Plan: Steps Involved
1. Develop list of KSAOs required for job KSAOs are provided by job requirements matrix 2. For each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection process 3. Determine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO

8 Exh. 8.3: Selection Sequence
Initial Assessment Method Substantive Discretionary Contingent Applicant Flow Stage Applicants Candidates Finalists Offer Receivers New Hires

9 Resumes and Cover Letters
Information provided is controlled by applicant Information needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completeness Major issues Large number received by organizations Falsification and misrepresentation of information Lack of research exists related to Validity or reliability Costs Adverse impact

10 Overview of Application Blanks
Areas covered Educational experience Training Job experience Key advantage -- Organization dictates information provided Major issue -- Information requested should Be critical to job success and Reflect KSAOs relevant to job Sample application blank - Exh. 8.4

11 Sample Application for Employment

12 Sample Application for Employment (cont)

13 Application Blanks Areas of special interest
Educational requirements Level of education GPA Quality of school Major field of study Extracurricular activities Training and experience requirements Licensing, certification, and job knowledge Weighted application blanks Evaluation --> ŕ = .10 to ŕ = .20

14 Biographical Information / Biodata
Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests “Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior” Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivation Measures Exh. 8.5: Examples of Biodata Items Exh. 8.6: A Taxonomy of Biodata Items Development of a biodata survey Choose the criterion Identify criterion groups Select items to be analyzed Specify item response alternatives Weight items Cross-validation Develop cutoff scores

15 Biographical Information: Accomplishment Records
Survey past accomplishments of candidates as they relate to dimensions of work that are part of effective performance Includes written statement of accomplishment, when it took place, any recognition, and verification Emphasis on achievements rather than activities Exh. 8.7: Scoring Key Excerpt for an Accomplishment Record

16 Evaluation: Biographical Information / Biodata
Test-retest reliability can be high: .77 to .90 Predictive validity moderate: to .37 Issues Generalizability beyond first group? Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear what these inventories assess Falsification can be a big problem Suggestions to reduce faking? Applicant reactions?

17 Reference Reports: Letters of Recommendation
Problems Inability to discern more-qualified from less-qualified applicants Lack of standardization Why are these of such limited use? Suggestions to improve credibility Use a structured form Use a standardized scoring key Other suggestions?

18 Reference Reports: Reference Checks
Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact with Prior immediate supervisor(s) or HR department of current of previous companies Roughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checks Problems Same as problems with letters of recommendation Reluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concerns Exh. 8.9: Sample Reference Check

19 Reference Reports: Background Testing
Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustment Type of information requested Criminal history Credit information Educational history Employment verification Driver license histories Workers’ compensation claims Key issues Limited validity evidence Legal constraints on pre-employment inquiries

20 Evaluation of Reference Reports
Predictive validity limited: .16 to .26 Validity depends on source providing information HR department, coworker, or relative Supervisors What sources do you think work best? Cost vs. benefit of approach must be considered

21 Initial Assessment Methods
Handwriting analysis Literacy testing Genetic screening Discuss the value & limits of these methods

22 Initial Interview Characteristics Video and computer interviews
Begins process of necessary differentiation -- “rough cut” Purpose -- Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatches Limitation -- Most expensive method of initial assessment Video and computer interviews Offers cost savings

23 Evaluation of Initial Interview
Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulness Guidelines to enhance usefulness Ask questions assessing most basic KSAOs Stick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questions Keep interviews brief Ask same questions of all applicants

24 Choice of Initial Assessment Methods
Criteria Use Cost Reliability Validity Utility Applicant reactions Adverse impact Evaluate the following Education level GPA Quality of school Major field Extracurricular activity Training & experience Licensing/certification Weighted app. Blanks Biodata Letters of recommendation Reference checks Background testing Resumes, cover letters Initial interviews

25 Legal Issues Disclaimers - Organization clearly identifies rights it wants to maintain Employment-at-will Verification consent False statement warning Reference checks Preemployment inquiries - PIs Federal laws and regulations EEOC Guide to Preemployment Inquiries ADA regulations State laws and regulations - Exh. 8.11

26 Legal Issues Bona fide occupational qualifications - BFOQs
Discrimination based on sex, religion, or national origin, but not race or color, is permitted if it can be shown to be a BFOQ “reasonably necessary to the normal operation” of the business Employer justifications Inability to perform Same-sex personal contact Customer preference Pregnancy or fertility

27 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2
Is it wrong to “pad” one’s résumé with information that, while not an outright lie, is an enhancement? For example, would it be wrong to term one’s job “maintenance coordinator” when in fact one simply emptied garbage cans? Issue 2 Do you think employer have a right to check into applicants’ backgrounds? Even if there is no suspicion of misbehavior? Even if the job poses no security or sensitive risks? Even if the background check includes driving offenses and credit histories?

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