2 Staffing Organizations Model Vision and MissionGoals and ObjectivesOrganization StrategyHR and Staffing StrategyStaffing Policies and ProgramsSupport ActivitiesCore Staffing ActivitiesLegal complianceRecruitment: External, internalPlanningSelection: Measurement, external, internalJob analysisEmployment: Decision making, final matchStaffing System and Retention Management
3 Chapter Outline Preliminary Issues Initial Assessment Methods Logic of PredictionNature of PredictorsDevelopment of the Selection PlanSelection SequenceInitial Assessment MethodsResumes and Cover LettersApplication BlanksBiographical InformationInitial Assessment MethodsReferences and Background ChecksHandwriting AnalysisLiteracy TestingGenetic TestingInitial InterviewChoice of MethodsLegal Issues
4 Preliminary Issues Logic of prediction Nature of predictors Development of the selection planSelection sequence
5 Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance Previous job(s)Current jobNonjobPast SituationsNew Situation (job)AttractionPerformanceSatisfactionRetentionAttendanceHR OutcomesPersonKSAOsMotivationSamplePredict
6 Nature of Predictors Content Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality)Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to performanceCriterion: Actual measure of prior performanceFormSpeed vs. power: How many versus what levelPaper / pencil vs. performance: Test in writing or in behaviorObjective vs. essay: Much like multiple-choice vs. essay course exam questionsOral vs. written vs. computer: How data are obtained
7 Development of the Selection Plan: Steps Involved 1. Develop list of KSAOs required for jobKSAOs are provided by job requirements matrix2. For each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection process3. Determine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO
9 Resumes and Cover Letters Information provided is controlled by applicantInformation needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completenessMajor issuesLarge number received by organizationsFalsification and misrepresentation of informationLack of research exists related toValidity or reliabilityCostsAdverse impact
10 Overview of Application Blanks Areas coveredEducational experienceTrainingJob experienceKey advantage -- Organization dictates information providedMajor issue -- Information requested shouldBe critical to job success andReflect KSAOs relevant to jobSample application blank - Exh. 8.4
13 Application Blanks Areas of special interest Educational requirementsLevel of educationGPAQuality of schoolMajor field of studyExtracurricular activitiesTraining and experience requirementsLicensing, certification, and job knowledgeWeighted application blanksEvaluation --> ŕ = .10 to ŕ = .20
14 Biographical Information / Biodata Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests“Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior”Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivationMeasuresExh. 8.5: Examples of Biodata ItemsExh. 8.6: A Taxonomy of Biodata ItemsDevelopment of a biodata surveyChoose the criterionIdentify criterion groupsSelect items to be analyzedSpecify item response alternativesWeight itemsCross-validationDevelop cutoff scores
15 Biographical Information: Accomplishment Records Survey past accomplishments of candidates as they relate to dimensions of work that are part of effective performanceIncludes written statement of accomplishment, when it took place, any recognition, and verificationEmphasis on achievements rather than activitiesExh. 8.7: Scoring Key Excerpt for an Accomplishment Record
16 Evaluation: Biographical Information / Biodata Test-retest reliability can be high: .77 to .90Predictive validity moderate: to .37IssuesGeneralizability beyond first group?Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear what these inventories assessFalsification can be a big problemSuggestions to reduce faking?Applicant reactions?
17 Reference Reports: Letters of Recommendation ProblemsInability to discern more-qualified from less-qualified applicantsLack of standardizationWhy are these of such limited use?Suggestions to improve credibilityUse a structured formUse a standardized scoring keyOther suggestions?
18 Reference Reports: Reference Checks Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact withPrior immediate supervisor(s) orHR department of current of previous companiesRoughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checksProblemsSame as problems with letters of recommendationReluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concernsExh. 8.9: Sample Reference Check
19 Reference Reports: Background Testing Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustmentType of information requestedCriminal historyCredit informationEducational historyEmployment verificationDriver license historiesWorkers’ compensation claimsKey issuesLimited validity evidenceLegal constraints on pre-employment inquiries
20 Evaluation of Reference Reports Predictive validity limited: .16 to .26Validity depends on source providing informationHR department, coworker, or relativeSupervisorsWhat sources do you think work best?Cost vs. benefit of approach must be considered
21 Initial Assessment Methods Handwriting analysisLiteracy testingGenetic screeningDiscuss the value & limits of these methods
22 Initial Interview Characteristics Video and computer interviews Begins process of necessary differentiation -- “rough cut”Purpose -- Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatchesLimitation -- Most expensive method of initial assessmentVideo and computer interviewsOffers cost savings
23 Evaluation of Initial Interview Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulnessGuidelines to enhance usefulnessAsk questions assessing most basic KSAOsStick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questionsKeep interviews briefAsk same questions of all applicants
24 Choice of Initial Assessment Methods CriteriaUseCostReliabilityValidityUtilityApplicant reactionsAdverse impactEvaluate the followingEducation levelGPAQuality of schoolMajor fieldExtracurricular activityTraining & experienceLicensing/certificationWeighted app. BlanksBiodataLetters of recommendationReference checksBackground testingResumes, cover lettersInitial interviews
25 Legal IssuesDisclaimers - Organization clearly identifies rights it wants to maintainEmployment-at-willVerification consentFalse statement warningReference checksPreemployment inquiries - PIsFederal laws and regulationsEEOC Guide to Preemployment InquiriesADA regulationsState laws and regulations - Exh. 8.11
26 Legal Issues Bona fide occupational qualifications - BFOQs Discrimination based on sex, religion, or national origin, but not race or color, is permitted if it can be shown to be a BFOQ “reasonably necessary to the normal operation” of the businessEmployer justificationsInability to performSame-sex personal contactCustomer preferencePregnancy or fertility
27 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2 Is it wrong to “pad” one’s résumé with information that, while not an outright lie, is an enhancement? For example, would it be wrong to term one’s job “maintenance coordinator” when in fact one simply emptied garbage cans?Issue 2Do you think employer have a right to check into applicants’ backgrounds? Even if there is no suspicion of misbehavior? Even if the job poses no security or sensitive risks? Even if the background check includes driving offenses and credit histories?