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Job Analysis and Rewards

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1 Job Analysis and Rewards
CHAPTER FOUR Job Analysis and Rewards Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

2 Types of Jobs Traditional Evolving Flexible Idiosyncratic Team-Based
Exh. 4.1: Terminology Commonly Used in Describing Jobs Evolving Flexible Idiosyncratic Team-Based Classification of teams Staffing implications Extent to which a team member performs one job vs. multiple jobs Degree of task interdependence among team members Telework

3 Job Requirements Job Analysis: Overview
Definition Process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements Two major forms Job requirements Specific KSAOs for the job Competency based General KSAOs for all applicants Has different degrees of relevance to staffing activities Support activity for staffing activities Provides foundation for successful staffing systems

4 Job Requirements Job Analysis
Overview Exh. 4.3: Job Requirements Approach to JA Job requirements matrix Job descriptions and job specifications Collecting job requirements information

5 Exh. 4.3: Job Requirements Approach to Job Analysis

6 Job Requirements Matrix
Exh. 4.3: Portion of Job Requirements Matrix for Job of Administrative Assistant Task statements Task dimensions Importance of tasks / dimensions KSAOs KSAO importance Job context

7 Task Statements Definition
Objectively written descriptions of behaviors or work activities engaged in by employees to perform job Exh. 4.4: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements

8 Exh. 4.5: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements

9 Characteristics of Task Statements
Requirements: Task Statements Suggestions: Effectively Writing Task Statements What employee does, using a specific verb at start of statement To whom or what employee does what he/she does What is produced, indicating expected output What materials, tools, procedures, or equipment used Use specific action verbs, having only one meaning Focus on recording tasks, not elements (15-25) Do not include trivial activities Ensure list of tasks is content valid and reliable Analysts should include manager and an incumbent Accuracy of statements cannot be evaluated against external criterion

10 Task Dimensions Definition Characteristics
Involves grouping sets of task statements into dimensions, attaching a name to each dimension Other terms -- “duties,” “accountability areas,” “responsibilities,” and “performance dimensions” Characteristics Creation is optional Many different grouping procedures exist Guideline - 4 to 8 dimensions Grouping procedure should be acceptable to organizational members Empirical validation against external criterion is not possible

11 Importance of Tasks/Dimensions
Involves an objective assessment of importance Two decisions Decide on attribute to be assessed in terms of importance Decide whether attribute will be measured in categorical or continuous terms Exh. 4.5: Examples of Ways to Assess Task/Dimension Importance Relative time spent Percentage (%) time spent Importance to overall performance Need for new employee training

12 KSAOs What are KSAOs? KSAO importance Job context
Knowledge - Exh. 4.6: Knowledges Contained in O*NET Skill - Exh. 4.7: Skills Contained in O*NET Ability - Exh. 4.8: Abilities Contained in O*NET Other Characteristics - Exh. 4.9: Examples of Other Job Requirements KSAO importance Exh. 4.10: Examples of Ways to Assess KSAO Importance Job context Exh. 4.11: Job Context Contained in O*NET

13 Job Descriptions and Job Specifications
Describes tasks, task dimensions, importance of tasks / dimensions, and job context Includes Job family, job title, job summary Task statements and dimensions Importance indicators Job context indicators Date conducted Job specifications Describes KSAOs Exh. 4.12: Example of Combined Job Description / Specification

14 Collecting Job Requirements Information
Methods Sources to be used Job analysis process

15 Collecting Job Requirements Information: Methods
Prior information Observation Interviews Questionnaire Combined methods Criteria for choice of methods Exh. 4.13: Criteria for Guiding Choice of JA Methods

16 Collecting Job Requirements Information: Sources
Job analyst Job incumbents Supervisors SMEs Combined sources

17 Collecting Job Requirements Information: JA Process
Purpose Scope Internal staff or consultant - See Exh. 4.14 Organization and coordination Communication Work flow and time frame Analysis, synthesis, and documentation Maintenance of system Example of JA process - See Exh. 4.15

18 Competency-Based Job Analysis
Nature of competencies Competency example Organization usage Collecting competency information

19 What is a Competency? Definition Similarities to KSAOs
An underlying characteristic of an individual contributing to Job or role performance and Organizational success Similarities to KSAOs Differences between competencies and KSAOs May contribute to success on multiple jobs Contribute not only to job performance but also to organizational success

20 Exh. 4.16: Examples of Competencies

21 Organization Usage Organizations are experimenting with
Developing competencies and competency models and Using them as underpinnings of several HR applications Three strategic HR reasons for doing competency modeling Create awareness and understanding of need for change in business Enhance skill levels of workforce Improve teamwork and coordination Emphasis -- Establishing general competencies

22 Collecting Competency Information
Techniques and processes are in their infancy General competencies at the organizational /strategic level are established by top management Guidelines for establishing general competency requirements Organization must establish its mission and goals prior to determining competency requirements Should be important at all job levels Should have specific, behavioral definitions, not just labels

23 Job Rewards Exh. 4.17—Extrinsic rewards Exh. 4.18—Intrinsic rewards
Direct compensation: base pay and variable pay Indirect compensation: benefits Hours of work Career advancement Job security Exh. 4.18—Intrinsic rewards

24 Job Rewards: Collecting Information
Within the organization Interviews with employees Surveys with employees Outside the organization SHRM survey Organizational practices

25 Legal Issues Job relatedness and court cases Essential job functions
Recommendations -- Establishing job-related nature of staffing practices Essential job functions What are essential functions? P. 190 Evidence of essential functions - P. 190 Role of job analysis - See Exh. 4.23

26 Recommendations: Establishing Job-Related Nature of Staffing Practices
Job analysis must be performed and must be for the job for which the selection instrument is to be utilized Analysis of job should be in writing Job analysis should describe in detail the procedure used Job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts Sample size should be large and representative of jobs for which selection instrument is used Tasks, duties, and activities should be included in analysis Most important tasks should be represented in selection devise Competency levels of job performance for entry-level jobs should be specified Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be specified, particularly if content validation model is followed

27 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2
It has been suggested that “ethical conduct” be formally incorporated as a general competency requirement for any job within the organization. Discuss the pros and cons of this suggestion. Issue 2 Assume you are assisting in the conduct of job analysis as an HR department representative. You have encountered several managers who want to delete certain tasks and KSAOs from the formal job description having to do with employee safety, even though they clearly are job requirements. How should you handle this situation?

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