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Speech Production1 Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration Phonation Articulation and Resonance English Speech Sounds Clinical Application.

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Presentation on theme: "Speech Production1 Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration Phonation Articulation and Resonance English Speech Sounds Clinical Application."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Speech Production1 Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration Phonation Articulation and Resonance English Speech Sounds Clinical Application

3 Speech Production2 Respiration Overview of Respiration and Anatomy Inspiration for Quiet Inspiration for Speech Expiration Interaction of Inspiration and Expiration Expiration for Sustained Voicing Expiration for Speech

4 Speech Production3 Overview Need to Review Speech Anatomy –Especially lungs, trachea, musculature, etc. Boyle’s Law

5 Speech Production4 Overview Boyle’s Law continued

6 Speech Production5 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree Trachea –16 to 20 rings of smooth cartilage and muscle. –Epithelium and cilia –Function of cilia

7 Speech Production6 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree Bronchi –Primary –Secondary, etc. Anatomy and function similar to trachea.

8 Speech Production7 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree Bronchioles –Similar to bronchi except no cartilage –Terminate with respiratory bronchioles. Alveolar ducts

9 Speech Production8 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree Alveolar sacs. Aka alveoli 300 to 750 million in adult Important for CO 2 - O 2 Exchange.

10 Speech Production9 Anatomy - Lungs and Thoracic Cavity Right lung is larger than left. Why? Thoracic Cavity –Sternum –Vertebrae –Ribs –Diaphragm

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12 Speech Production11 Anatomy - Muscles Diaphragm is inferior to the thorax and forms floor of thoracic cavity. Also, forms ceiling of abdomen Functionally is forced downward by contraction and when relaxed the lungs will rise.

13 Speech Production12 Anatomy - Muscles External Intercostals - important for inspiration –11 pairs –When contracted they pull rib cage upward and outward Internal Intercostals - important for expiration –11 pairs –When contracted, they pull rib cage downward. Fibers of two muscle groups are 90 degrees from each other, adding support and protection. Accessory Muscles of Respiration - see p. 75 of text

14 Speech Production13 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage Rib cage lined with pleura lining. Two types of pleura lining: –Rib cage lined with costal or parietal pleura –Lungs lined with pulmonary or visceral pleura.

15 Speech Production14 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage Two Functions of pleura lining –Minimizes friction between lungs and rib cage –Linings adhere to each other due to surface tension Questions –What’s pleurisy? –What’s pneumothorax? –What’s pulmonaria?

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17 Speech Production16 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage

18 Speech Production17 Inspiration for Quiet Refers to the involuntary intake of air into the lungs during quiet breathing. Occurs because of shortage or O 2 and buildup of CO 2 in brainstem. In adults, about 12 to 20 cycles per minute. Higher in infants. About 40% of breathing cycle is inspiration, and 60% is expiration.

19 Speech Production18 Inspiration for Speech Inspiration for speech differs from inspiration for quiet because … –Lung volume –Degree of automaticity Speech inspiration requires less of respiratory cycle; 10:90 vs. 40:60.

20 Speech Production19 Expiration Refers to exhaling air which is forced out by … –Elastic recoil of rib cage –torque –gravity

21 Speech Production20 Interaction of Inspiration and Expiration Tidal Volume Vital Capacity Residual Volume Total Lung Capacity Resting Volume Inspiratory Reserve Expiratory Reserve

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23 Speech Production22 Expiration for Sustained Voicing When vital capacity exceeds resting volume (i.e., 40% vital capacity) and when you produce a sustained phoneme, the speaker engages inspiratory muscles to slow the rate of expiration.

24 Speech Production23 Expiration for Sustained Voicing (continued) Specifically these muscle are the external intercostal muscles and the interchondral part of the internal intercostal muscles. When vital capacity is lower than 40% vital capacity, the speaker engages the expiratory muscles to continue expiration for sustained voicing.

25 Speech Production24 Expiration for Sustained Voicing (continued)

26 Speech Production25 Expiration for Speech Similar to sustained voicing. But there are differences… –Temporal and stress patterns require a change in sub-glottal air pressure. –Changes in glottis & vocal tract affect airflow and pressure. –Volume of air expended is different.

27 Speech Production26 Conditions that Affect Respiration Parkinson’s Disease Cerebellar Disease Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Cerebral Palsy Voice Disorders Hearing Loss

28 Speech Production27 Parkinson’s Disease Progressive neurological disease Rigidity of muscle movement that can affect respiration and speech production. Weak breathy voice but varies with degree of impairment. Lack of pressure can affect individual phonemes. smil.asp?f=parkinsons_disease&c=parkinson_wearingoff&b=healingwell&sv=3&spg=FI&han=NO &vidAd=undefined

29 Speech Production28 Cerebellar Disease Cerebellum is important for muscle coordination. Cerebellum may be damaged via disease or injury Lose of coordination of respiratory muscles. Speech tends to be “jerky” or unnatural fluctuations of Fo and intensity. Often will have normal lung capacities but a reduced vital capacity due to inability to coordinate respiratory muscles.

30 Speech Production29 Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Can result in weakness or paralysis to muscles of respiration. May need mechanical respirator. Problem generating adequate pressure and flow. Results in soft speech and slow inspirations. Some difficulty generating enough pressure for some phonemes. VC is reduced. Insert Christopher Reeve video.

31 Speech Production30 Cerebral Palsy Spastic CP - (80% of all CPs) –Most common Respiratory muscles tend to be hypotonic and weak. –Inhalations weak and expirations are forced. Athetoid CP (10%) –Involuntary movements may lead to sudden movements of respiratory muscles. –May become worse under stress –Speech tends to be very “jerky” Ataxic CP (5-10%) –Lacks coordination. –Tidal Breathing is affected.

32 Speech Production31 Voice Disorders Respiration often depends on specific voice disorder –Hyperfunctional –Hypofunctional Holistic treatment approach of phonation and respiration is common

33 Speech Production32 Hearing Loss Actual respiration is typically normal. Problems with coordination of breath stream with articulation and voicing. Deaf speakers often expend too much air. Take inspire less for speech.

34 Speech Production33 Summary


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