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Speech Production Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration

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Presentation on theme: "Speech Production Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Speech Production Respiration Conditions that Affect Respiration
Phonation Articulation and Resonance English Speech Sounds Clinical Application Speech Production

2 Respiration Overview of Respiration and Anatomy Inspiration for Quiet
Inspiration for Speech Expiration Interaction of Inspiration and Expiration Expiration for Sustained Voicing Expiration for Speech Speech Production

3 Overview Need to Review Speech Anatomy Boyle’s Law
Especially lungs, trachea, musculature, etc. Boyle’s Law Speech Production

4 Overview Boyle’s Law continued Speech Production

5 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree
Trachea 16 to 20 rings of smooth cartilage and muscle. Epithelium and cilia Function of cilia Speech Production

6 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree
Primary Secondary, etc. Anatomy and function similar to trachea. Speech Production

7 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree
Bronchioles Similar to bronchi except no cartilage Terminate with respiratory bronchioles. Alveolar ducts Speech Production

8 Anatomy - Bronchial Tree
Alveolar sacs. Aka alveoli 300 to 750 million in adult Important for CO2 - O2 Exchange. Speech Production

9 Anatomy - Lungs and Thoracic Cavity
Right lung is larger than left. Why? Thoracic Cavity Sternum Vertebrae Ribs Diaphragm Speech Production

10 Speech Production

11 Anatomy - Muscles Diaphragm is inferior to the thorax and forms floor of thoracic cavity. Also, forms ceiling of abdomen Functionally is forced downward by contraction and when relaxed the lungs will rise. Speech Production

12 Anatomy - Muscles External Intercostals - important for inspiration
11 pairs When contracted they pull rib cage upward and outward Internal Intercostals - important for expiration When contracted, they pull rib cage downward. Fibers of two muscle groups are 90 degrees from each other, adding support and protection. Accessory Muscles of Respiration - see p. 75 of text Speech Production

13 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage
Rib cage lined with pleura lining. Two types of pleura lining: Rib cage lined with costal or parietal pleura Lungs lined with pulmonary or visceral pleura. Speech Production

14 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage
Two Functions of pleura lining Minimizes friction between lungs and rib cage Linings adhere to each other due to surface tension Questions What’s pleurisy? What’s pneumothorax? What’s pulmonaria? Speech Production

15 Speech Production

16 Anatomy - Pleural Linkage
Speech Production

17 Inspiration for Quiet Refers to the involuntary intake of air into the lungs during quiet breathing. Occurs because of shortage or O2 and buildup of CO2 in brainstem. In adults, about 12 to 20 cycles per minute. Higher in infants. About 40% of breathing cycle is inspiration, and 60% is expiration. Speech Production

18 Inspiration for Speech
Inspiration for speech differs from inspiration for quiet because … Lung volume Degree of automaticity Speech inspiration requires less of respiratory cycle; 10:90 vs. 40:60. Speech Production

19 Expiration Refers to exhaling air which is forced out by …
Elastic recoil of rib cage torque gravity Speech Production

20 Interaction of Inspiration and Expiration
Tidal Volume Vital Capacity Residual Volume Total Lung Capacity Resting Volume Inspiratory Reserve Expiratory Reserve Speech Production

21 Speech Production

22 Expiration for Sustained Voicing
When vital capacity exceeds resting volume (i.e., 40% vital capacity) and when you produce a sustained phoneme, the speaker engages inspiratory muscles to slow the rate of expiration. Speech Production

23 Expiration for Sustained Voicing (continued)
Specifically these muscle are the external intercostal muscles and the interchondral part of the internal intercostal muscles. When vital capacity is lower than 40% vital capacity, the speaker engages the expiratory muscles to continue expiration for sustained voicing. Speech Production

24 Expiration for Sustained Voicing (continued)
Speech Production

25 Expiration for Speech Similar to sustained voicing.
But there are differences… Temporal and stress patterns require a change in sub-glottal air pressure. Changes in glottis & vocal tract affect airflow and pressure. Volume of air expended is different. Speech Production

26 Conditions that Affect Respiration
Parkinson’s Disease Cerebellar Disease Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Cerebral Palsy Voice Disorders Hearing Loss Speech Production

27 Parkinson’s Disease Progressive neurological disease
Rigidity of muscle movement that can affect respiration and speech production. Weak breathy voice but varies with degree of impairment. Lack of pressure can affect individual phonemes. Speech Production

28 Cerebellar Disease Cerebellum is important for muscle coordination.
Cerebellum may be damaged via disease or injury Lose of coordination of respiratory muscles. Speech tends to be “jerky” or unnatural fluctuations of Fo and intensity. Often will have normal lung capacities but a reduced vital capacity due to inability to coordinate respiratory muscles. Speech Production

29 Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Can result in weakness or paralysis to muscles of respiration. May need mechanical respirator. Problem generating adequate pressure and flow. Results in soft speech and slow inspirations. Some difficulty generating enough pressure for some phonemes. VC is reduced. Insert Christopher Reeve video. Speech Production

30 Cerebral Palsy Spastic CP - (80% of all CPs) Athetoid CP (10%)
Most common Respiratory muscles tend to be hypotonic and weak. Inhalations weak and expirations are forced. Athetoid CP (10%) Involuntary movements may lead to sudden movements of respiratory muscles. May become worse under stress Speech tends to be very “jerky” Ataxic CP (5-10%) Lacks coordination. Tidal Breathing is affected. Speech Production

31 Voice Disorders Respiration often depends on specific voice disorder
Hyperfunctional Hypofunctional Holistic treatment approach of phonation and respiration is common Speech Production

32 Hearing Loss Actual respiration is typically normal.
Problems with coordination of breath stream with articulation and voicing. Deaf speakers often expend too much air. Take inspire less for speech. Speech Production

33 Summary Speech Production

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