We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byDakota Gilyard
Modified about 1 year ago
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Marieb Chapter 22: The Respiratory System Part A
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the lungs and the blood Transport: O 2 and CO 2 in the blood Internal respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Respiratory system Circulatory system
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functional Anatomy Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange Microscopic structures: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli Conducting zone: passageways to gas exchange sites Includes all other respiratory structures Respiratory muscles: diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Defense Mechanisms
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Is The Lung Considered Sterile?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bronchi and Subdivisions Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching Branching pattern called the bronchial (respiratory) tree
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Zone Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs (clusters of alveoli) ~300 million alveoli account for most of the lungs’ volume and are the main site for gas exchange
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.8a (a) Alveolar duct Alveoli Alveolar sac Respiratory bronchioles Terminal bronchiole
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Membrane ~0.5- m-thick air-blood barrier Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes Alveolar walls Single layer of squamous epithelium (type I cells) Scattered type II cuboidal cells secrete surfactant and antimicrobial proteins
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Membrane
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.9c Capillary Type II (surfactant- secreting) cell Type I cell of alveolar wall Endothelial cell nucleus Macrophage Alveoli (gas-filled air spaces) Red blood cell in capillary Alveolar pores Capillary endothelium Fused basement membranes of the alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium Alveolar epithelium Respiratory membrane Red blood cell O2O2 Alveolus CO 2 Capillary Alveolus Nucleus of type I (squamous epithelial) cell (c) Detailed anatomy of the respiratory membrane
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.9a Elastic fibers (a) Diagrammatic view of capillary-alveoli relationships Smooth muscle Alveolus Capillaries Terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveoli Surrounded by fine elastic fibers Contain open pores that Connect adjacent alveoli Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized House alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids And The Lung Pleural fluid fills the pleural cavity Provides lubrication and surface tension Surfactant within the alveoli Lowers alveolar surface tension
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanics of Breathing Pulmonary ventilation consists of two phases 1.Inspiration: gases flow into the lungs 2.Expiration: gases exit the lungs
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity Atmospheric pressure (P atm ) Pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body 760 mm Hg at sea level Respiratory pressures are described relative to P atm Negative respiratory pressure is less than P atm Positive respiratory pressure is greater than P atm Zero respiratory pressure = P atm
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapulmonary Pressure Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressure (P pul ) Pressure in the alveoli Fluctuates with breathing Always eventually equalizes with P atm
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapleural Pressure Intrapleural pressure (P ip ): Pressure in the pleural cavity Fluctuates with breathing Always a negative pressure (
"name": "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.",
"description": "Intrapleural Pressure Intrapleural pressure (P ip ): Pressure in the pleural cavity Fluctuates with breathing Always a negative pressure (
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapleural Pressure Negative P ip is caused by opposing forces Two inward forces promote lung collapse Elastic recoil of lungs decreases lung size Surface tension of alveolar fluid reduces alveolar size One outward force tends to enlarge the lungs Elasticity of the chest wall pulls the thorax outward
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveolar Surface Tension Surfactant Detergent-like lipid and protein complex produced by type II alveolar cells Reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and discourages alveolar collapse Insufficient quantity in premature infants causes infant respiratory distress syndrome
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Atmospheric pressure Intrapleural pressure 756 mm Hg (–4 mm Hg) Transpulmonary pressure 760 mm Hg –756 mm Hg = 4 mm Hg Thoracic wall Diaphragm Lung Intrapulmonary pressure 760 mm Hg (0 mm Hg) Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Visceral pleura
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Atelectasis (lung collapse) is due to Plugged bronchioles collapse of alveoli Wound that admits air into pleural cavity (pneumothorax)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary Ventilation Inspiration and expiration Mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in the thoracic cavity Volume changes pressure changes Pressure changes gases flow to equalize pressure
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Boyle’s Law The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas Pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V): P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Inspiration An active process Inspiratory muscles contract Thoracic volume increases Lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases Intrapulmonary pressure drops (to 1 mm Hg) Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until P pul = P atm
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (1 of 2) Sequence of events Changes in anterior- posterior and superior- inferior dimensions Changes in lateral dimensions (superior view) Ribs are elevated and sternum flares as external intercostals contract. Diaphragm moves inferiorly during contraction. External intercostals contract. Inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends; rib cage rises). 2 1 Thoracic cavity volume increases. 3 Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases. 4 Intrapulmonary pressure drops (to –1 mm Hg). 5 Air (gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 (equal to atmospheric pressure).
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Expiration Quiet expiration is normally a passive process Inspiratory muscles relax Thoracic cavity volume decreases Elastic lungs recoil and intrapulmonary volume decreases P pul rises (to +1 mm Hg) Air flows out of the lungs down its pressure gradient until Ppul = 0 Note: forced expiration is an active process: it uses abdominal and internal intercostal muscles
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (2 of 2) Sequence of events Changes in anterior- posterior and superior- inferior dimensions Changes in lateral dimensions (superior view) Ribs and sternum are depressed as external intercostals relax. External intercostals relax. Diaphragm moves superiorly as it relaxes. 1 Inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm rises; rib cage descends due to recoil of costal cartilages). 2 Thoracic cavity volume decreases. 3 Elastic lungs recoil passively; intrapulmonary volume decreases. 4 Intrapulmonary pres- sure rises (to +1 mm Hg). 5 Air (gases) flows out of lungs down its pressure gradient until intra- pulmonary pressure is 0.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure seconds elapsed Volume of breath Intrapulmonary pressure Expiration Intrapleural pressure Trans- pulmonary pressure Inspiration Intrapulmonary pressure. Pressure inside lung decreases as lung volume increases during inspiration; pressure increases during expiration. Intrapleural pressure. Pleural cavity pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands during inspiration. Returns to initial value as chest wall recoils. Volume of breath. During each breath, the pressure gradients move 0.5 liter of air into and out of the lungs.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Airway Resistance Resistance is usually not a problem for normal people because we have large diameter airways or many smaller diameter airways As airway resistance rises, breathing movements become more strenuous Severely constricting or obstruction of bronchioles Can prevent life-sustaining ventilation Can occur during acute asthma attacks and stop ventilation Epinephrine dilates bronchioles and reduces air resistance
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Compliance
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Compliance Lessened by Non-elastic scar tissue (fibrosis) Reduced production of surfactant Decreased flexibility of the thoracic cage
Lungs Occupy _____________________________________ _ except the mediastinum – site of vascular and bronchial attachments – anterior, lateral, and posterior.
Respiratory Physiology Part I BIO 219 Dr. Adam Ross Napa Valley College.
The Respiratory system Pulmonary ventilation – Chp 16 Respiration.
Structure : Air conducting channels Respiratory spaces, 300 millions alveoli lungs float in the thoracic cavity + pleura.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Opener Given what you know about bloodflow and breathing, how are the circulatory and respiratory systems related?
Human Anatomy & Physiology FIFTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Vince Austin Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity Intrapulmonary pressure is the pressure in the alveoli, which rises and falls during respiration, but.
Intrapulmonary Pressure Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressure (P pul ) – Pressure in the alveoli – Fluctuates with breathing – Always eventually equalizes.
Part II - Respiratory Physiology. 4 distinct events Pulmonary ventilation: air is moved in and out of the lungs External respiration: gas exchange.
Chapter 19 Inspiration and Expiration. Ventilation Breathing – Movement of air from outside the body into the bronchial tree and alveoli and then back.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Physiology of air breathing The lungs.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BIOLOGICAL PRESSURE Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems.
Pulmonary ventilation: air is moved in and out of the lungs External respiration: gas exchange between blood and alveoli Respiratory gas transport:
POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.
Pulmonary Ventilation A.K.A. “Breathing” Consists of two phases: Inspiration: period of time when air flows into the lungs Expiration: period.
Chapter 17 Mechanics of Breathing. About this Chapter The respiratory system Gas laws Ventilation.
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 13.1 The major respiratory organs shown in relation to surrounding structures. Nasal cavity Nostril Larynx Trachea.
Respiratory System Chapter 23. Superficial To Deep Nose Produces mucus; filters, warms and moistens incoming air.
Second Edition Human Physiology Principles of PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Cindy Stanfield, University of South Alabama William J. Germann |
Dr Archna Ghildiyal Associate Professor Deptt of physiology KGMU.
1 Respiratory system L1 Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD University of Jordan.
© SSER Ltd.. The human gas exchange system consists of the nasal passages, the pharynx or throat, the larynx or voice box, the trachea, the right and.
Respiration, Breathing Mechanics and Lung Function.
Respiratory System. Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange.
Topic 6.4 – Gas Exchange. The human respiratory system works in collaboration with the transport system to ensure that oxygen is continually supplied.
RESPIRATION Dr. Zainab H.H Dept. of Physiology Lec.1,2.
Mechanics of Breathing. Events of Respiration Pulmonary ventilation – moving air in and out of the lungs External respiration – gas exchange between.
The Respiratory System I: Anatomy Functions of the Respiratory System The Nasal Cavity and Sinuses Pharynx, Larynx, & Trachea Respiratory Mucosa.
Respiratory system. Mechanism of lung ventilation.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Karen Dunbar Kareiva Ivy Tech Community College © Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images Chapter 22 Part B The Respiratory.
PULMONARY VENTILATION DR AMNA TAHIR ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT.
Pulmonary Ventilation Week 3. PulmonaryVentilation Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing, is the exchange of air between the atmosphere.
ECAP BIOL The Respiratory System Mrs. Riel.
Respiratory System Chapter 22 Biology Respiratory System Functions 1. Pulmonary Ventilation 2. External Respiration 3. Respiratory Gas 4. Internal.
Day 2 Agenda: Look over 6 weeks grades Conduct lung volume lab.
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. 5 Functions of the Respiratory System 1.Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood 2.Moves.
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. The Thorax and its contents.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL. CELLULAR METABOLISM ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Lecture—1 Dr.Zahoor Ali Shaikh 1.
MECHANICS OF BREATHING Lecture-2 Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh 1.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 16 Respiratory Physiology 16-1.
Respiratory system By: Dr Hossam El-deen Salem. Respiratory system Conducting Part (Transports air) Conducting Part (Transports air) Trachea Trachea Primary.
Chapter 13 The Respiratory System. Organs of the Respiratory system Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs – alveoli.
Mechanism of Breathing Barasa Ambrose. 11-Jun-16Respiratory Movements2 Mechanical Factors in Breathing Air flows from region of high pressure to region.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM III Dr. Mah Jabeen Muneera Assistant professor Department of Anatomy KEMU.
Ventilation - moves air to and from alveoli. Functions of Respiratory System Surface area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood. Helps regulate.
Respiratory Physiology 1. Dr. Aida Korish Asst. Prof. Physiology KSU 2 Dr.Aida Korish.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.