2 RespirationExternal respiration – Gas exchange between blood and alveoliInternal respiration – Gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
3 Pulmonary Ventilation Inspiration – Diaphragm and intercostals muscles contract resulting in increased volume and decreased pressure in the thoracic cavity; air rushes in
4 Pulmonary Ventilation Expiration – Diaphragm and intercostals muscles relax resulting in decreased volume and increased pressure in the thoracic cavity; air pushed out
5 Respiratory VolumesTidal volume - normal amount of air inhales or exhaledInspiratory reserve volume - amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal inhalationExpiratory reserve volume – amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal exhalation
6 Respiratory VolumesVital capacity – maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalationResidual volume – amount of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation
7 Factors altering normal function DiseasesDisordersPollutants in the environmentTrauma
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