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US History Note Page 21 “Resources Behind the Civil War”

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1 US History Note Page 21 “Resources Behind the Civil War”

2 We didn’t Start the Fire by Icouldnotthinkofnot Causes of the Civil War Xtra Normal Video Causes Of The American Civil War By Grandhistorian

3 Lincoln’s Election -Lincoln wins election with no southern electoral votes -Southern states secede in fear of gov’t where they have no voice -S.C. first to secede, 6 others follow - Confederate States of America formed before Lincoln takes office -Jefferson Davis elected Confederate President Review

4 Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC

5 War Begins -Election of 1860 -Confederate States of America -Firing on Ft. Sumter -Virginia Secedes followed by Ark., NC, and Tenn. -11 States Leave Union -5 BORDER states REMAIN in the Union but still allow SLAVERY!!! Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware

6 Modern War -Uses both old and new methods of war OLD: -Cavalry, Muzzle Rifles, Battlefield Formations NEW: -Railroads, telegraph, drafts, submarines, armored ships, observation balloons, cone-shaped bullets, gun- boats, blockade runners,

7 The USS Monitor and Ironclads

8 Trench Warfare: Defending Positions

9 Trenches made it very hard on the offensive side causing high casualties Trenches made it very hard on the offensive side causing high casualties

10 Artillery

11 Strategy-Union -Constrictor (Anaconda) Plan developed by Winfield Scott Plan was to BLOCKADE the Confederate ports; control access to their ports and limit imports and exports -divide the south through the Mississippi by sending GUNBOATS down the Mississippi River TOTAL WAR: To strike not only against soldiers but also against civilians and their ECONOMY

12 Strategy-Confederacy -defensive battle WAR OF ATTRITION: The wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources! -European recognition: Seeking the aid of Britain and France! Manuf. Goods. If European nations recognize the Confederate States of America as an independent nation it will make the North look like an aggressor and Europe can send supplies/troops

13 Advantages-Union -most of the population 22 Million People -large advantages in resources 96 % Pig Iron 90% All Factories -most of the transportation and industry Double the South Rail Lines….

14 Advantages-Confederacy -defending their homes Home Ground Advantage -strong sectional pride -better military tradition and leadership 7 of 8 Military Colleges

15 Government Powers -both sides had to increase central government powers -raise an army Conscription – not popular / Draft -supply armies – food, clothing, ammo, rifles. -finance the war Both ran short of cash! -suppress any opposition -Copperheads – Democrats in Union, opposed to war….

16 Raising Armies -Northern Advantage Huge Population!!! 22 million -volunteers at first -drafts begin -riots in New York City -bounties paid: a BONUS for soldiers who served for more than 3 years -substitution possible: RICH’S MAN’S WAR -many volunteers

17 Supplying Armies -Union Advantages -Industrial Capacity -Transportation Capabilities -Financial Centers - North had National Treasury… Confederate Problems -Foraging the land (having to live off the land; hunt, take from local citizens) -Shortages - had no way of moving food and supplies!!!

18 A War of Resources … Who do you think will win???

19 War Politics -War to Preserve Union**** At the beginning it is not to END slavery, esp. in the South -civil rights were restricted -habeas corpus suspended: your right to a quick and speedy trial; can’t be held against your will -Emancipation Debated Needed higher cause -Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1, 1863


21 Others in the War -African Americans Segregated Forces 54 th Massachusetts: famous all black regiment known for their bravery at Fort Wagner -Women Nursing Clara Barton: founded the Red Cross; Sanitation Commission in charge of prison and hospital sanitation

22 Soldier’s Lives -disillusionment of war -filthy conditions -poor food: HARDTACK; biscuit make of wheat flour -bad medical care -prison camps Andersonville: most famous prison where thousands died from poor conditions; leaders tried for war crimes

23 Andersonville


25 The End Note Page 21 “Behind the Civil War” Chapter 9 / Sect 1

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