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Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333 Lab (1) Introduction2009 Mansour Al-Hashim.

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Presentation on theme: "Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333 Lab (1) Introduction2009 Mansour Al-Hashim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333 Lab (1) Introduction2009 Mansour Al-Hashim

2 Objectives of Lab 1 Syllabus Syllabus Course Objectives Course Objectives Equipment Equipment Introduction Introduction Main Minerals of Sedimentary Rocks Main Minerals of Sedimentary Rocks

3 Syllabus (1) Instructor: Mansour Al-Hashim Instructor: Mansour Al-Hashim Office hours: Office hours: Saturday through Wednesday 2-4 pm Room: 1B58 Room: 1B Course: Sedimentary Petrology (GEO 333) Course: Sedimentary Petrology (GEO 333)

4 Syllabus (2) Recommended texts: Recommended texts: 1) 1) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks by Robert L. Folk, Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin, Texas, USA. 2) 2) Sedimentary Petrology by Tucker, M.E., 2001,3 rd edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. 3) 3) Sedimentary Petrology by Blatt, H., 1992, 2 nd edition. Freeman Co., New York, USA.

5 Syllabus (3) Recommended texts: Recommended texts: 1) Origin of sedimentary rocks by Blatt, H., Middleton, G.V., and Murray, R., 1980,2 nd edition. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 782 p. 2) Sand and sandstone by Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E., and Siever, R., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

6 Syllabus (4) Grading Grading   Laboratory exercises (4 pts.)   Short quizzes (4 pts.)   Attendance, participation, and effort (2 pts.)   First exam (10 pts.)   Final exam (10 pts.) Note: for a detailed syllabus, see attached Word file (not ready yet!)

7 Course Objectives (1) Knowing the basic concepts in the classification of sedimentary rocks. Knowing the basic concepts in the classification of sedimentary rocks. Knowing the processes that erode, transport, and deposit sediments. Knowing the processes that erode, transport, and deposit sediments. Observing physical characteristics of sedimentary rocks, especially mineral composition and texture. Observing physical characteristics of sedimentary rocks, especially mineral composition and texture.

8 Course Objectives (2) Understanding the main classifications used in clastic sedimentology. Understanding the main classifications used in clastic sedimentology. Using some statistical methods and quantitative techniques in sedimentology. Using some statistical methods and quantitative techniques in sedimentology. To be introduced to some nomenclatures used to name sediments and sedimentary rocks. To be introduced to some nomenclatures used to name sediments and sedimentary rocks.

9 Equipment Lab notebook Lab notebook Pencils Pencils Calculator Calculator Hand lenses Grain size cards

10 Introduction Sedimentary processes of weathering, transportation, and deposition produce three products: 1.Quartz (Conglomerate and Sandstone) 2. Clay (Shale and Mudstone) 3. CaCO 3 (Limestone and Dolomite)

11 Bowen’s Reaction Series From csmres.jmu.edu

12 Weathering Weathering Except for quartz, all other rock-forming minerals either dissolve or decompose to form new minerals. Except for quartz, all other rock-forming minerals either dissolve or decompose to form new minerals. Quartz does not weather (chemically). Quartz does not weather (chemically). Orthoclase weathers to form clay. Orthoclase weathers to form clay. Ca plagioclase dissolves into solution to form CaCO 3. Ca plagioclase dissolves into solution to form CaCO 3.

13 From csmres.jmu.edu From csmres.jmu.edu

14 Transportation and Sorting Weathering products are separated by transportation. Weathering products are separated by transportation. The quartz settles quickly and form rocks such as sandstone and siltstone. The quartz settles quickly and form rocks such as sandstone and siltstone. The clay stays in suspension until it settles to form shale and mudstone. The clay stays in suspension until it settles to form shale and mudstone. The dissolved CaCO 3 precipitates to form limestone or dolomite. The dissolved CaCO 3 precipitates to form limestone or dolomite.

15 Transportation and Sorting From csmres.jmu.edu

16 From csmres.jmu.edu From csmres.jmu.edu

17 The Main Minerals that Form Sedimentary Rocks 1. Quartz 1. Very common on the surface of the Earth. 2. Glassy mineral. Conchoidal fracture. Hardness=7. 3. Strong crystals with no cleavage. 4. A component of many igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. 5. Usually appears light gray in rocks. 6. Similar in appearance to Na Plagioclase.

18 Quartz SiO 2 SiO 2 From csmres.jmu.edu From mindat.org

19 The Main Minerals that Form Sedimentary Rocks 2. Clay 1. Forms from the chemical weathering of feldspars (e.g. orthoclase). 2. Extremely fine grained (less than 1/256 mm). 3. Tends to be white or tan, especially if pure. 4. Refers to a group of minerals known as clay minerals.

20 Clay Shale From csmres.jmu.edu

21 The Main Minerals that Form Sedimentary Rocks 3. Calcite ( CaCO 3 ) 1. Trigonal. 2. Very common. 3. Wide variety of colors. Hardness=3. 4. Highly variable regarding forms and colors. 5. Characteristic properties include low hardness and high reactivity with acids. From " chalix " the Greek word for lime. From " chalix " the Greek word for lime.

22 Calcite From mindat.org CaCO 3

23 Assignment (1) Sample No. Weathering product (s) Depositional environment

24 References Klein and Hurlbut, Manual of mineralogy. Klein and Hurlbut, Manual of mineralogy. Pettijohn et al., Sand and sandstone. Pettijohn et al., Sand and sandstone. csmres.jmu.edu csmres.jmu.edu mindat.org mindat.org

25 The End


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