Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333
Lab (3) Clastic Sedimentary Rocks (Classification & Description) 2009 Mansour Al-Hashim

2 Preview of Lab 2 Classification in general
Classification of sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks Chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks Fundamental constituents of sedimentary rocks

3 Objectives of Lab 3 Textures of sedimentary rocks Grain size
Roundness and sorting Maturity Color Cohesiveness (firmness) Mineral composition and sedimentary structures Framework and matrix Cements in sedimentary rocks

4 Textures of Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks may have 1. Clastic (fragmental) texture Grains are stuck together. Characteristic of clastic sedimentary rocks. Examples: sandstone and conglomerate. 2. Non-clastic (crystalline) texture Interlocking crystals. Characteristic of chemical sedimentary rocks. Examples: limestone, dolomite, and chert.

5 Clastic (fragmental) Texture

6 Non-clastic (crystalline) Texture

7 Grain Size (1) Grain sizes can be determined by:
Direct measurement with calipers or meter sticks. For particles larger than several centimeters. Screening and petrographic microscope. For particles from 2 mm to about 1/16 mm. Pipette or hydrometer (settling rates in water) For particles less than 1/16 mm.

8 Grain Size (2) Results of grain-size analysis can be demonstrated as histograms, cumulative curves, or frequency curves. Many statistical parameters can be calculated (e.g., median, mean, skewness, kurtosis, etc.). Used to characterize depositional processes and depositional environments. Udden-Wentworth grain-size scale is the most widely used.

9 Wentworth grade scale

10 Modified Udden-Wentworth grain-size Scale

11 Simplified grain-size scale


13 Roundness and Sorting Roundness (angularity) Sorting
Indicates how smooth or sharp the edges and corners of particles are. Usually measured with reference to a comparative chart (the commonest is Powers’ , 1953). Sorting The degree of uniformity of grain sizes.

14 Categories of roundness
From Tucker (2001)

15 Degrees of sorting From Compton (1962) * Note the standard deviation values between classes

16 Visual estimation of sorting
From Tucker (2001)

17 Maturity Depends on how many cycles of erosion and redeposition the components of a rock have undergone. There are two types of maturity: 1. Compositional maturity Compositional maturity = quartz + chert / feldspars + rock fragments. 2. Textural maturity Textural (structural) maturity = sorting and roundness of sand-sized grains.

18 Textural Maturity From Folk (1951)

19 Color Organic matter, sulfides, and some iron oxides give rocks a dark color. Indicating deposition in a reducing environment. Some iron oxides give rocks red or yellowish color. Indicating deposition in an oxidizing environment.

20 Color Indications Black - organic matter FeS
Yellowish - pyrite, markasite FeS2 Yellowish or bluish - sulphates, carbonates, and chlorides Yellowish to brownish - limonite, goethite FeO(OH) Reddish - iron oxides FeO

21 From

22 Cohesiveness (firmness)
The degree to which the particles stick together. Cohesiveness can be described as: Fragile Soft Intermediate Hard Very hard

23 Mineral Composition The most common minerals in sedimentary rocks are:
Quartz Clay minerals Feldspars Carbonates (calcite and dolomite) Rock fragments Small amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, and mica.

24 Sedimentary Structures
Some common sedimentary structures include: Bedding (stratification) Lamination Graded Bedding Cross-Bedding Ripple Marks Mud Cracks Raindrop Impressions Nodules, concretions, geodes, and Stromatolites.


26 Framework and Matrix The grains in a sand-sized or coarser grained sedimentary rock are known as the framework. These grains are either: In contact with each other Surrounded by empty spaces (pore spaces) Surrounded by finer grained sediment (matrix) Cemented together by a bonding material (cement)

27 Framework and Matrix From Immenhauser (2002)

28 Cements in Sedimentary Rocks
The most common cements in sedimentary rocks are: Silica (quartz, opal, or chalcedony) Carbonates (calcite, dolomite, or siderite) Iron oxides (hematite) Recognition of matrix and cement is not always possible in hand specimens.

29 Assignment 3

30 References Compton, 1962. Manual of field geology.
Folk, Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Folk, Stages of textural maturity in sedimentary rocks: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 21. Immenhauser, Sedimentology for master students. Tucker, Sedimentary petrology: an introduction to the origin of sedimentary rocks. Blackwell Science, London, UK.

31 The End

Download ppt "Sedimentary Petrology GEO 333"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google