Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Classifying Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents Classifying Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Rocks from ReefsMetamorphic RocksThe Rock Cycle
2 - Classifying RocksStudying RocksWhen studying a rock sample, geologists observe the rock’s mineral composition, color, and texture.
3 Mineral Composition and Color - Classifying RocksMineral Composition and ColorRock – a solid mixture of minerals and other materials.Rock-forming minerals – the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth’s crust.Granite – tends to be a light-colored rock that has high silica contentBasalt – tends to be a dark-colored rock that is low in silica
4 - Classifying RocksTextureGrains – particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock its texture.Texture – the look and feel of a rock’s surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rock’s grains.
5 Texture Grain size Coarse-grained – large easy to see grains - Classifying RocksTextureGrain sizeCoarse-grained – large easy to see grainsFine-grained – so small they can only be seen under a microscope
6 - Classifying RocksTextureGrain Shape – varies greatly from sand grains to large triangular grainsGrain Pattern – can vary also from layers to swirls to bands
7 How Rocks Form Geologists classify rocks into three major groups: - Classifying RocksHow Rocks FormGeologists classify rocks into three major groups:igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock.
8 - Classifying RocksHow Rocks FormIgneous rock – type of rock that forms from the melting then cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.Sedimentary rock – type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.Metamorphic rock – type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat and pressure
9 Classifying Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are classified according to their origin, texture, and mineral composition.
10 Classifying Igneous Rocks Extrusive igneous rock – forms from lava on Earth’s surface.Intrusive igneous rock – forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface.The faster igneous rock cools, the finer the grainsExtrusive igneous rock tends to be a finer-grained rock than intrusive igneous rock
11 - Igneous RocksMineral MixtureGranite is a mixture of light-colored minerals, such as feldspar and quartz, and dark-colored minerals, including hornblende and different types of mica. But granite can vary in mineral composition. This affects its color and texture.
12 Mineral Mixture Reading Graphs: - Igneous RocksMineral MixtureReading Graphs:What mineral is most abundant in granite?Feldspar
13 Mineral Mixture Reading Graphs: - Igneous RocksMineral MixtureReading Graphs:About what percentage of granite is made up of dark minerals?10%
14 Mineral Mixture Calculating: - Igneous RocksMineral MixtureCalculating:If the amount of quartz increases to 35 percent and the amount of dark-colored minerals stays the same, what percentage of the granite will be made up of feldspar?100% - (35% + 10%) = 55%
15 Mineral Mixture Predicting: - Igneous RocksMineral MixturePredicting:How would the color of the granite change if it contained less feldspar and more mica and hornblende?The overall color would be darker.
16 Click the SciLinks button for links on igneous rocks.
17 - Sedimentary RocksFrom Sediment to RockMost sedimentary rocks are formed through a series of processes: erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation.
18 - Sedimentary RocksFrom Sediment to RockSediment – small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms.Usually forms due to erosionErosion – a destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rock.Deposition – process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
19 - Sedimentary RocksFrom Sediment to RockCompaction – process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.Occurs over millions of years as layers buildCementation – process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.Takes place when sediment is in the presence of water
20 Types of Sedimentary Rock - Sedimentary RocksTypes of Sedimentary RockThere are three major groups of sedimentary rocks:clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks.Clastic rock – sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.Can range in size from microscopic clay particles to large bouldersEx: shale, sandstone, conglomerate, and breccia
21 Types of Sedimentary Rock - Sedimentary RocksTypes of Sedimentary RockOrganic rock – sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers.Ex: Coal and LimestoneCoal forms from the remains of swamp plants buried in water.Limestone forms in the ocean, where many living things, such as coral, clams, and oysters, have hard shells made of calcite that collect on the ocean floor.PeatLigniteBituminousAnthracite
22 Types of Sedimentary Rock - Sedimentary RocksTypes of Sedimentary RockChemical rock – sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution. (Reacts to HCl)Ex: Limestone forms from calcite deposits dissolved in lakes, rivers, streams.
23 Uses of Sedimentary Rock - Sedimentary RocksUses of Sedimentary RockSedimentary rock has been used for thousands of years in building structures, tools, and statues.Ex: The White House in Washington D.C. is constructed of sandstone.
24 Links on Sedimentary Rocks Click the SciLinks button for links on sedimentary rocks.
25 - Rocks From ReefsCoral ReefsCoral reef – a structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.When coral animals die, their skeletons remain. More corals build on top of them, gradually forming a coral reef.Only form in ocean water between 30°N and 30°S latitude
26 Coral Reefs(not in notes) Coral reef is really organic(from living things) limestone.Deposits of organic limestone help geologists figure out what the environment was like long ago.If they find a fossil of coral reef, they would know that location used to contain warm, shallow ocean water.
27 More on Coral Landforms - Rocks From ReefsMore on Coral LandformsClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about coral landforms.
28 - Metamorphic RocksMetamorphic RockMetamorphic rock – forms when heat and pressure beneath Earth’s surface changes the appearance, texture, crystal structure, and mineral content of either igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rock.
29 Types of Metamorphic Rocks Geologists classify metamorphic rocks according to the arrangement of the grains that make up the rocks.Foliated rocks – metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands.Ex: Slate – metamorphic shale (denser and more compact than shale)ShaleSlateGneiss
30 Types of Metamorphic Rocks Nonfoliated rocks – metamorphic rocks that have randomly arranged metamorphic grains that do not split into layersEx: Quartzite – metamorphic sandstoneMarble – metamorphic limestone
31 Links on Metamorphic Rocks Click the SciLinks button for links on metamorphic rocks.
32 A Cycle of Many Pathways - The Rock CycleA Cycle of Many PathwaysForces deep inside Earth and at the surface produce a slow cycle that builds, destroys, and changes the rocks in the crust.
33 - The Rock CycleRock cycle – processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
34 The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics Plate movements start the rock cycle by helping to form magma, the source of igneous rocks.Plate movements also cause faulting, folding, and other motions of the crust that help to form sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
35 - The Rock CycleRock Cycle ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the rock cycle.