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Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -29 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir.

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1 Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -29 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir

2 Having looked at syntax, at what makes for good, effective sentences, errors in sentence construction and certain features of grammar, like pronouns and their Antecedents, subject-verb agreement, we will turn to punctuation. In today’s lesson you will learn about the Comma and the Apostrophe - two very important items of punctuation and which cause the greatest problems for students of English. Lesson – 29- Punctuation (Comma and Apostrophe

3 Punctuation depends upon grammar. Until you understand how one part of a sentence is related to another, you cannot punctuate efficiently. Commas are not marks to be added to a completed sentence for artistic effect; they are very much a part of a well written sentence as are correctly placed pronouns and adverbs. In writing, punctuation takes the place of pauses, gestures, rising tone and other such features of speech.

4 Most people make use of some system of vocal punctuation in their speech. Some sentences would be clear enough without any punctuation marks. But readers have come to expect that sentences that are constructed in the same way will be punctuated in the same way. Therefore, certain rules of punctuation have come into being, and sensible writers follow them. The greatest problems in punctuation have to do with the use of the comma, and the apostrophe.

5 We shall take up the comma first and then consider the apostrophe. This does not mean that there are no other marks of punctuation: the colon, semi-colon the full stop / period, the question mark, exclamation mark, the dash quotation marks, parentheses and square brackets are other well known marks. But we shall focus on only two as these pose the greatest number of problems in punctuation.

6 The Comma [,] indicates a very short pause. Writers may disagree about a few of its use, but most of them agree about the five main uses which we will now consider. Look at the following sentences and insert commas where needed. i -Before leaving home the child’s nanny collected a milk bottle, a bagful of diapers, a blanket, and a rattle. Expln: Commas are needed to separate the items in a series.

7 Insert commas where needed in the following sentences. i.Before leaving home the child’s nanny collected a milk bottle a bag full of diapers a blanket and a rattle. ii. Although he is eighty my grand dad walks ten miles daily. iii The cutlery box if I remember correctly is in the big trunk upstairs

8 ii - Although he is eighty, my grand dad walks ten miles daily. Expln: the comma separates the introductory phrase from the rest of the sentence. iii -The cutlery box, if I remember correctly, is in the big trunk upstairs. Expln: The words if I remember correctly, interrupt the flow of the rest of the sentence, so they are set off by commas. iv -The paint company had displayed thirty shades of color, but the fussy lady still could not find anything to order. Expln: The comma separates two complete thoughts connected by the conjunction or joining word ‘but’..

9 iv. The paint company displayed thirty shades of color but the fussy lady still could not find anything to order. V. The house agent said ‘‘It may take you a while to get used to the place.”

10 v - The house agent said, “It may take you a while to get used to the place”. Expln: The comma separates a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence.

11 Today’s lesson explains five main uses of the comma. Comma Rules. i. Between items in a series. ii. After introductory material. iii. Around words that interrupt the flow of sentence. iv. Between complete thoughts connected by a joining word. v. With direct quotations.

12 A comma often marks a slight pause / break in a sentence. When you read a sentence aloud, you can often hear the points where slight pauses occur. These pauses / breaks occur at the point where one of the five main comma rules applies. In general, use a comma only when a comma rule applies. When you are in doubt about whether or not to use a comma, it is often best to leave it out. We’ll look at these rules one by one.

13 Rule 1: Comma between items in a series The comma is used to separate three or more items in a series - words, phrases, or clauses may be used in a series as in following examples. i. The village women sold pottery, baskets, blankets, and silver jewelry. (words) ii. The women spread their wares on the pavements, on doorsteps, and especially under trees in the town square. (phrases)

14 i. The village women sold pottery, baskets, blankets, and silver jewelry. (words) ii. The women spread their wares on the pavements, on doorsteps, and especially under trees in the town square. (phrases) (iii) The tribal elders took part in the dance, their women sold pottery and jewelry, and their children ran around happily playing games. (clauses).

15 NOTE: Do not use a comma when the series contains only two items. -The college cafeteria now serves sandwiches and cold drinks. Practice 1. In the following sentences insert commas between items in a series.

16 (iii) The tribal elders took part in the dance, their women sold pottery and jewelry, and their children ran around happily playing games. (clauses). NOTE: Do not use a comma when the series contains only two items. e.g. -The college cafeteria now serves sandwiches and cold drinks.

17 Practice 1. In the following sentences insert commas between items in a series. (i) Most countries now recycle newspapers, plastic bottles, and aluminum cans. (ii) Walking, jogging, and bicycling are all inexpensive exercises. (iii) The learner driver went through a red light, steered off the side of a road, and ended up on the footpath.

18 Practice 1. In the following sentences insert commas between items in a series. i. Most countries now recycle newspapers plastic bottles and aluminum cans. ii. Walking jogging and bicycling are all inexpensive exercises. iii. The learner driver went through a red light steered off the side of a road and ended up on the footpath.

19 Rule No. 2 Comma After Introducing Material: A comma is used to separate introductory material from the rest of the sentence. e.g.s - After the mother had given the baby a bath, it feel asleep. - Pushing and shoving each other, the ladies rushed into the sales section. - With the ceremony of releasing doves in the air, the festival got off to a rousing start. NOTE: The comma may be omitted if the introductory phrase / clause is so short that misreading is unlikely. e.g. As the flames rose the crowd gave a shout.

20 Practice 2. Insert commas after the introductory phrase / clause in each of the following sentences. i. When the lights went off, the children let out a loud yell. ii. During the operation, the doctor accidentally dropped the medicine bottle on the floor. iii. Disappointed by the batsman’s performance, the fans threw bottles and fruit peel at the fieldsmen. iv. After waiting in the queue for two hours, the students were told that the office had run out of admission forms.

21 Practice 2. Insert commas after the introductory phrase / clause in each of the following sentences. i. When the lights went off the children let out a loud yell. ii. During the operation the doctor accidentally dropped the medicine bottle on the floor. iii. Disappointed by the batsman’s performance the fans threw bottles and fruit peel at the fieldsmen. iv. After waiting in the queue for two hours the students were told that the office had run out of admission forms.

22 Rule No. 3. Put a comma around words that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Sometimes sentences contain material that interrupts the flow of thought. Such words or group of words should be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas e.g. My mother, who is very old, complains that I do not give her enough time. One way of testing the interruption of the flow of thought is to read aloud such a sentence.

23 If you read aloud the above sentence you can hear the words who is very old interrupt the flow of thought. Such interruption often contains information that is less important to the sentence. e.g.s -The owner of the house, grumbling angrily, came out of the house to claim his dog. -The college, which was built in 1937, needs a face lift. -The college auditorium, though, is in fairly good condition.

24 If you read aloud the above sentence you can hear the words who is very old interrupt the flow of thought. Such interruption often contain information that is less important to the sentence. e.g.s -The owner of the house, grumbling angrily, came out of the house to claim his dog. -The college, which was built in 1937, needs a face lift. -The college auditorium, though, is in fairly good condition.

25 Practice 3. Insert commas around the interrupting words in each of the following sentences. i. The house built of white stone was finally completed in 1890. ii. the park forty acres of prime land provides a fine view for the surrounding buildings. iii. The scenery of Switzerland which resembles that of Kashmir inspired him to write his novel. iv.Laila who was wearing a new dress yelled a the boys who spilled tea on her.

26 Rule No. 4. Comma between complete thoughts connected by a joining word. When two complete thoughts are combined into one sentence by a joining word like and, but or so, a comma is used before the joining word. e.gs -Multan is one of the oldest cities in Pakistan, and its is also one of the most interesting.

27 - Some historians claim that Uch Sharif, another city in Punjab is older, but all agree that the Indus Valley has been continuously inhabited for thousands of years. -Perhaps you have read about this old city, or perhaps you have even visited Uch Sharif. -Money may not buy happiness, but it definitely makes misery bearable.

28 NOTE: Do not add a comma just because a sentence contains the word and, but or so. A comma is used only when the joining word comes between two complete thoughts. Each of those thoughts must have its own subject and verb. e.g. i. -Shama spent the morning in the college, and then she went to the civil secretariat. (comma: each complete thought has a subject and a verb. Shama spent, and she went) s v s v

29 NOTE: Do not add a comma just because a sentence contains the word and, but or so. A comma is used only when the joining word comes between two complete thoughts. Each of those thoughts must have its own subject and verb. e.g. i.-Shama spent the morning in the college, and then she went to the civil secretariat. (comma: each complete thought has a subject and a verb. Shama spent; and she went) ii. - Shama spent the morning in the college and then went to the civil secretariat. (No comma: the second thought is not complete because it doesn’t have its own subject.) s v s v

30 Practice 4: Insert commas before the joining words in the following sentences. (i) The cricket team has lost five matches in a row, but they are as popular as ever. (ii) Kauser wasn’t wearing her reading glasses, so she couldn’t read the fine print in the dictionary. (iii) I used to be able to play the sitar very well, but now I’m out of practice. (iv) It is not a festival precisely, nor is it a village fair.

31 Practice 4: Insert commas before the joining words in the following sentences. (i) The cricket team has lost five matches in a row but they are as popular as ever. (ii) Kauser wasn’t wearing her reading glasses so she couldn’t read the fine print in the dictionary. (iii) I used to be able to play the sitar very well but now I’m out of practice. (iv) It is not a festival precisely nor is it a village fair.

32 Rule 5. Comma with Direct Quotations Commas are used to separate directly quoted material from the rest of the sentences. e.g.s -The coach shouted, ‘Move, move fast’. - The student said, “Do you mind if I ask a question?” -The customer grumbled to the waiter, “This tea tastes like ditch water.’ Note: When the comma comes at the end of directly quoted words, it is included within the quotation marks. e.g. - “After this class,” whispered one student to her friend, “Lets go to the cafeteria.”

33 Rule 5. Comma with Direct Quotations e.g.s -The coach shouted, ‘Move, move fast’. - The student said, “Do you mind if I ask a question?” -The customer grumbled to the waiter, “This tea tastes like ditch water.’ Note: e.g. - “After this class,” whispered one student to her friend, “Lets go to the cafeteria.”

34 Practice 5. Insert commas to set off quoted material in the following sentences.. (i)‘We are ready to leave’, said a cheerful voice on the bus mike. ‘(ii) This book’, complained the student to the book store owner, is twenty rupees cheaper at the other store. (iii) The cashier said, we don’t take cheques.

35 Practice 5. Insert commas to set off quoted material in the following sentences.. (i)‘We are ready to leave’ said a cheerful voice on the bus mike. ‘(ii) This book’ complained the student to the book store owner “is twenty rupees cheaper at the other store.” (iii) The cashier said “we don’t take cheques.”

36 Review: See if you can recognize which comma rule applies to each sentence. Then identify the place where the comma(s) is / are required. a.Comma between items in a series. b.Comma after introductory material c.Comma around interrupting words d.Comma before a word that joins two complete thoughts. e.Comma with direct quotations.

37 1. Glaring around the room, the boss demanded silence. (b) 2. I heard a horn blowing, so I glanced up at my rearview mirror. (d) 3. The professor won’t leave the house without his hat, his briefcase, and his umbrella. (a) 4. The city children, unused to the darkness of the forest, sound it hard to sleep. (c) 5. The man whispered “Listen very carefully to what I have to say”. (e)

38 1. Glaring around the room the boss demanded silence. ( _____ ) 2. I heard a horn blowing so I glanced up at my rearview mirror. ( _____ ) 3. The professor won’t leave the house without his hat his briefcase and his umbrella. ( ___ ) 4. The city children unused to the darkness of the forest sound it hard to sleep. ( ____ ) 5. The man whispered “Listen very carefully to what I have to say”. ( _____ )

39 The Apostrophe [, ]. Look at the following sentences and see if you can spot the word that needs the apostrophe. 1. It’s impossible to see stars in daylight. - It’s the contraction of the words it is. The apostrophe takes the place of letter i, which has been dropped. 2. The judge can’t hear the case until next month. - Can’t is the contraction of the word cannot. The apostrophe shows that 2 letters, n+o have been left out.

40 3. No one likes the college principal’s new attendance rules The apostrophe plus s shows that the new rules belong to the principal. The apostrophe comes after the last letter of the word principal. Likes does not take an apostrophe, because it is not possessive. It is a verb. 4. The sandwiches at Greens’ restaurant are the best in town The apostrophe after the s, shows that the Greens own the restaurant.

41 The Apostrophe [, ].Look at the following sentences and see if you can spot the word that needs the apostrophe. 1. It’s impossible to see stars in daylight. 2. The judge can’t hear the case until next month. 3. No one likes the college principals new attendance rules. 4. The sandwiches at Greens restaurant are the best in town.

42 The apostrophe is a punctuation work with two main purposes. (i) It is used in a contraction, showing that one or more letters have been left out of a word. (ii) It is also used to show possession - that something belongs to someone or something. The Apostrophe in Contractions A contraction is formed when two words are combined to make a new word. The apostrophe takes the place of the letter or letters that are omitted when forming the contraction. Here are a few common contractions.

43 I+am=I’mShe+will=she’ll it+is=it’sYou+will=you’ll Does+not=doesn’tYou+would=you’d Do+not=don’tWill+not=won’t Contractions are commonly used in every day speech and writing. They are not slangs. Some people in Pakistan think using contractions is wrong. I’ll read out a passage and you notice how frequently words are contracted.

44 Wouldn’t you like to go to the movies tonight? There’s a film I’ve been wanting to see, but it hasn’t been in Lahore until now. You’ve been wanting to see it too, haven’t you? Shouldn’t we ask the others to go with us? They’re always saying they’ve plenty of free time, don’t they? Contractions That Cause Problems There are 4 pairs of words that can cause problems to students These are

45 1.They’re-(meaning they are ) and their (meaning belonging to them) 2. It’s (meaning it is or it has) and its meaning belonging to it. 3. You’re (meaning you are) and your meaning belonging to you 4. Who’s (meaning who is) and whose meaning (belonging to whom) Notice how each of these words is used in the sentences that follow.

46 1.They’re their 2. It’s its 3. You’re your 4. Who’s whose

47 - They’re (they are) upset about the damage done to their new car. (car belonging to them). - It’s (it is) a shame that the college failed to honor its own faculty. -Your parents (belonging to you) said you’re (you are) their favorite child. - Who’s (who is) the person whose care number plate is missing.

48 -They’re upset about the damage done to their new car. - It’s a shame that the college failed to honor its own faculty. -Your parents said you’re their favorite child. - Who’s the person whose car number plate is missing.

49 The Apostrophe to Show Possession In the following phrases the apostrophe and s [ ’ s] are used to show possession of singular or plural norms not ending in s. - This is a man’s job - These are men’s jobs - Children’s games are not always simple - My sister-in-law’s great love is shopping. - She reads Huxley’s essays. In the case of plural nouns ending in S, the apostrophe alone is used. - She rang the Shahs’ doorbell. - The two dogs’ tracks were visible in the show. - The ladies’ toilet / wash-room was locked.

50 When Not to Use An Apostrophe: In Plurals and Verbs The possessive and plural forms of words are often confusing. Remember that a plural is formed simply by adding an s to a word; no apostrophe is used. Look at the following sentence to see which words are plural and which are possessive: - Samina’s new boots have golden buckles. +boots, buckles - plural. More than 1 boot, buckle+Samina’s: the word with the apostrophe plus s, is possessive: i.e. Samina owns the boots. - also many verbs end with an S. e.g. He owns the cinemas. Owns is a verb. Do not put an apostrophe in a verb.

51 Practice 6. Add an apostrophe (i)The mood of the department’s head is much better after he gives out the assignments for the day. Department’s – head belonging to the dept. Gives – Verb. Assignments - Plural (ii) This year’s new television shows are much worse than the programs of last year. Year’s - belonging to this year. Shows - pl, programs: pl, (iii) mind your p’s and q’s.

52 Practice 6. Add an apostrophe where necessary (i)The head of the departments mood is much better after he gives out the assignments for the day. (ii) This years new television shows are much worse than the programs of last year. (iii) Mind your ps and qs.

53 Review: Identify the correct answer. 1. A contraction is two words combined into a.one word b.a possessive c.a plural 2. In the contraction she’d, the apostrophe a.shows that she posses something b.takes the place of would c.indicates a plural 3. To make a possessive, an apostrophe plus an s is usually added to a.the name of the owner b.whatever is owned 4. An apostrophe is not needed in a.a contraction b.a plural

54 Review: Identify the correct answer. 1. A contraction is two words combined into a.one word b.a possessive c.a plural 2. In the contraction she’d, the apostrophe a.shows that she posses something b.takes the place of would c.indicates a plural 3. To make a possessive, an apostrophe plus an s is usually added to a.the name of the owner b.whatever is owned 4. An apostrophe is not needed in a.a contraction b.a plural

55 In today’s lesson you learnt about Punctuation and the problem areas in punctuation.skills required for effective writing. Till next time then……. ALLAH HAFIZ


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