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Parts of Speech ITSW 1410 Presentation Media Software Instructor: Glenda H. Easter
Parts of Speech2 Colon Use a colon before a list of items. Think of the colon as a substitute for the words "that is." – We brought several things to the picnic: champagne, oysters, chocolate truffles and fresh strawberries.
Parts of Speech3 Commas Remember that you NEVER punctuate words. You punctuate sentences. You can’t say "and" takes a comma; "however" takes a semi-colon. Remember that every punctuation mark tells the reader to expect something.
Parts of Speech4 Commas (Continued) Don’t use a comma unless you can cite a rule for it. When in doubt, leave it out. – "Put a comma where you pause" is not a rule of writing. It’s a rule of reading. There are 46 uses for the comma. Here are the two most frequently asked about.
Parts of Speech5 Uses of the Comma Put a comma between each item in a series. The comma after the last item in the series is optional and should be used only if it clarifies the meaning. This is called the terminal comma. A terminal comma is unnecessary if the word "and" clarifies that the last item in the series is next.
Parts of Speech6 Uses of the Comma (Continued) DON’T use the terminal comma in a short series. – The flag is blue, green and silver. DO use the terminal comma in a series that is especially long or complex. – We had milk and cookies, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and cake and ice cream for dinner.
Parts of Speech7 Uses of the Comma (Continued) Put commas around non-essential material: material that would not change the meaning of the subject if it were left out. If material is part of the subject, it is essential and must not have commas. – Gladys, who loves to ice skate, broke her toe. – The woman who loves to ice skate broke her toe.
Parts of Speech8 Uses of the Comma (Continued) Put commas around non-essential material (Continued): – His idea, which I like best, is the one about saving money. – The idea that I like best is the one about saving money. – All commas and periods go INSIDE quotation marks, regardless of usage.
Parts of Speech9 Dash Do not use a dash when you can use a comma. Dashes Shout. Parentheses whisper. Unfortunately, the dash is not on your keyboard (as is the hyphen).
Parts of Speech10 Dash (Continued) You can create a dash by using the function keys or the "insert, symbol" on your tool bar. Don’t use spaces before or after a dash. If your computer doesn't have a dash, you must create one by using two hyphens. Don’t use a hyphen for a dash. They are not the same. – dash -- – hyphen -
Parts of Speech11 Parallel Structure Parallel structure is a grammatical technique for creating a uniform pattern when two or more items are being compared or listed. The technique requires that each item begin with the same grammatical structure: – I like singing, dancing and cooking. – I like to sing, dance and cook. – I like to sing, to dance and to cook.
Parts of Speech12 Parentheses Remember that parentheses whisper. DASHES SHOUT. If the parenthetical element has a close, logical relationship to the rest of the sentence, use commas. Use parentheses to set off explanatory elements. – The ingredients in the recipe (flour, sugar, eggs, salt) are common.
Parts of Speech13 Past Tense There are two very different past tenses in English. Use them correctly. – When the action has been completed: learned, read, swam. I worked 40 hours last week. – When the action began in the past but has not been completed: have learned, have read, have swum. I have worked 12 hours so far today.
Parts of Speech14 Run Together Sentences Every sentence must have a subject, verb and a complete idea. Don’t separate two sentences (independent clauses) with a comma. Separate them with a semi-colon or use a period and a capital letter. – No: I like red, my sister does too. – Yes: I like red; my sister does too. – Yes: I like red. My sister does too.
Parts of Speech15 Semi-Colon Use a semi-colon to separate two independent clauses that are closely related. Do this to indicate that you don't want the reader to stop with the thought.
Parts of Speech16 Semi-Colon (Continued) An independent clause is one that can stand alone as a complete sentence. It has a subject, a verb and a complete idea. – Red is my favorite color; half my wardrobe is red.
Parts of Speech17 Semi-Colon (Continued) When items in a series are complex, long, or contain commas, it is often best to separate the items with a semi-colon rather than a comma. – We elected the following: Mary, president; Sue, vice-president; Richard, secretary; and Roger, treasurer.
Parts of Speech18 That That can be eliminated before a phrase if the meaning is clear without it. – I told him I was leaving early. – I told him that I was leaving early. (eliminate that)
Parts of Speech19 That (Continued) That should be used when two phrases could create ambiguity. This sentence can have two interpretations. – He told me in 1998 he moved to San Francisco.
Parts of Speech20 That (Continued) Which is the correct meaning? – In 1998 he told me he moved to San Francisco. – He told me he moved to San Francisco in 1998. Notice how that clarifies the meaning. – He told me that in 1998 he moved to San Francisco. – In 1998 he told me that he moved to San Francisco.
Parts of Speech21 That (Continued) That and which create a lot of confusion. The main problem is that which can be used in two ways, that in only one. That is used for essential material, creating what we call a restrictive phrase or clause. If essential material is eliminated, the sentence often changes meaning.
Parts of Speech22 That (Continued) Which, on the other hand, can be used when you have essential or non-essential material, creating either a restrictive or non-restrictive phrase or clause. Let’s look at examples. – History books, which do not include women, will not be used.
Parts of Speech23 That (Continued) – History books, which do not include women, will not be used. The sentence on the previous slide puts commas around the phrase "which do not include women." By using commas here, we are saying that this phrase is non-essential.
Parts of Speech24 That (Continued) – History books, which do not include women, will not be used. Therefore, we can delete the phrase and not change the meaning of the sentence. Non-essential material does not restrict the meaning of the sentence.
Parts of Speech25 That (Continued) – History books, which do not include women, will not be used. The sentence above means – History books will not be used. It also means – History books do not include women.
Parts of Speech26 That (Continued) Now let’s look at the identical words without the commas. – History books which do not include women will not be used. Because there are no commas in the sentence, we are saying that everything is essential.
Parts of Speech27 That (Continued) The phrase "which do not include women" restricts the meaning of the sentence. It becomes part of the complete grammatical subject.
Parts of Speech28 That (Continued) Notice the most important thing here: the words in both sentences are identical but the meanings differ because we used commas. The sentence above means – The history books that will not be used are those that do not include women.
Parts of Speech29 That (Continued) In other words, we might use some history books. That’s different from the first example, which said no history books will be used. Now that we have clarified how to punctuate that for essential material and which for non-essential material, let’s look at the choices in usage.
Parts of Speech30 That (Continued) That can be used only for essential material. And remember, we cannot use commas with essential material. So the rule is easy: don’t use commas when that introduces essential material. On the other hand, which can be used for both essential and non-essential material.
Parts of Speech31 That (Continued) English has a way of creating confusion, doesn’t it? For example, we can write – History books, which do not include women, will not be used. – History books which do not include women will not be used.
Parts of Speech32 That (Continued) How can we simplify this confusion? When we have essential material, we must use that. So reserve which for non-essential only.
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