Presentation on theme: "Now where do you put the Commas? Sentences, Sentence Combining, & punctuation basics."— Presentation transcript:
Now where do you put the Commas? Sentences, Sentence Combining, & punctuation basics.
Phrases and Clauses O A clause is a group of related words which has a subject and a verb. s v the clown tipped his hat. O A phrase is a group of related words which doesn’t have a complete subject and verb. v v smiling and waving to the crowd (but no subject—we don’t know who was smiling and waving)
Independent Clauses O A sentence is called an independent clause. It’s a clause because it has a subject and a verb, and independent because it’s a complete thought which can stand on it’s own. SV The clown rode his tricycle around the ring.
Dependent Clauses O A dependent clause has a subject and a verb, and as you might guess by the name, it can’t stand alone as a sentence. Although the elephants were tired (You’ve got a subject and a verb, but this isn’t complete; it’s a sentence fragment.) Common markers for dependent clauses are words such as because, though, when, until, while, whether, as, before, once, unless, and if.
Compound Sentences O Compound sentences contain two independent clauses, and for punctuation, you have two options: 1. You can join them with a comma + a conjunction (and, but, or, so, nor, for, yet). I love to read, and I have read fourteen books this month. 2. You can also join them with a semicolon. I love to read; I have read fourteen books this month.
Comma Splices O Can you join two complete sentences with a comma? NO ! ! ! I love to read, I have read fourteen books this month. (That’s a comma splice and it’s, well, an ugly sight.) O Remember that punctuation marks are there to send messages to the reader; the wrong punctuation sends wrong signals, and the reader gets lost. (Note the use of a semicolon and a comma + conjunction to join the independent clauses above)
Think you’ve got the idea? Where would you put commas & semicolons? Everyone told me I would like The Hunger Games but I definitely didn’t. I decided I don’t like narratives written in present tense, if the action happened in the past, the narrative needs to be written in past tense. In the long run it saves me money though I don’t have to shell out for two more books or the upcoming movies. Everyone told me I would like The Hunger Games, but I definitely didn’t. I decided I don’t like narratives written in present tense; if the action happened in the past, the narrative needs to be written in past tense. In the long run it saves me money though; I don’t have to shell out for two more books or the upcoming movies.
Punctuation rules for dependent clauses and phrases O An introductory phrase or clause (one that comes at the beginning of a sentence) needs to be followed by a comma. O Examples: After I dropped my sister off at her lesson, I headed home to study. Wishing I hadn’t put off studying until the last night, I settled in for a very long night of work. Because I hate cramming for tests, I have resolved to never procrastinate again.
Essential phrases and clauses O If the phrase or clause comes in the middle of a sentence and is essential to the meaning (if you took it out the sentence wouldn’t be clear), then you don’t need commas. S V dependent clause I wish I had studied for the test because I didn’t do well at all.
Non-essential phrases and clauses O When the phrase or clause isn’t essential (it adds information, but the sentence would still be clear without it), then you do need commas. S non-essential phrase V The old mill, built around 1890, provided a perfect spot for our hideout. See, you could say “The old mill provided a perfect spot for the hideout,” and it would make perfect sense.
Use commas to separate items in a list. The apples were cold, crisp, and delicious (list of single words) The apples were perfect because I had forgotten breakfast, I hadn’t had time for lunch, and I now have to run to a meeting. (list of clauses) I love the solitude of hiking, the chaos of a party, or the companionship of spending time with a close friend. (list of phrases)
Use Commas to separate adjectives when they are distinct and equal. O Test: if you can put “and” between the adjectives + they make just as much sense if you reverse the order, then you need commas The small grey kitten looked hungry I took it home to give it something to eat and a warm, soft place to sleep (Because “grey, small kitten” has a slightly different meaning than “small, grey” you’d leave out the comma. But because it makes just as much sense to say “soft, warm” as it does “warm, soft,” you need a comma.)
Remember commas to separate cities & states, and between dates. My grandfather was born January 4, 1949, and raised in Kentucky. He lives in Franklin, Massachusetts today.
Test yourself: Where would you put the commas? The vocation that I would most like to pursue is medicine. [click] My pediatrician Doctor Larson has mentioned several times how fun and rewarding his job is. It will be a long difficult road for me. I will need 4 years of college 4 years of medical school and at least 2 years of specialty training. If I work hard I could have the profession of my dreams by the end of the decade. The vocation that I would most like to pursue is medicine (no commas) My pediatrician, Doctor Larson, has mentioned several times how fun and rewarding his job is. (Doctor Larson is a non-essential phrase) It will be a long, difficult road for me. (commas between adjectives) I will need 4 years of college, 4 years of medical school, and at least 2 years of specialty training (commas separating items in a list) If I work hard, I could have the profession of my dreams by the end of the decade. (comma after an introductory phrase)