4I have learned it when I can Today, I will learnHow American society reflected the fears of the nuclear age.I will learn it byListening to lecture and taking Cornell NotesI have learned it when I canWrite a brief essay describing life after leaving a bomb shelter following a nuclear attack by Russia or China.
5Essential QuestionHow were Cold War tensions intensified?
6Soviet BombCommunism and the atom bomb dominated life for Americans and their leaders in the 1950s.
7Soviet BombSeptember 1949, Pres. Truman announced that, “We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR.”Soviet’s create their first atomic bomb.
8Soviet BombSuccessful Soviet development of a nuclear bomb created widespread fear of a “sneak” attack by the Soviets.The Civil Defense Administration (CDA) was set up to oversee warning, evacuation, and communications systems.Thousands of Americans built backyard bomb shelters, while schoolchildren learned to “duck and cover.”
9Soviet BombFear of nuclear attack forced Americans to prepare for a surprise attack.Some families built fallout shelters in their backyards.For every person killed instantly from a nuclear blast, four more would die later from fallout.
10Soviet BombThe U.S. reestablished itself as the world’s leading nuclear power with the detonation of a hydrogen, or thermonuclear, bomb in November 1952.
11Cold War at HomeAt the height of WWII, about 80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party.Some feared that the first loyalty of these American Communists was to the Soviet Union.Overall, Americans feared communist ideology, a world revolution and Soviet expansion.Anti-Soviet Cartoon
12Cold War at HomeIn March of 1947, President Truman set up the Loyalty Review BoardThe board was created to investigate federal employees and dismiss those disloyal to the U.S.The U.S. Attorney General also drew up a list of 91 “subversive” organizations – membership in any of these was ground for suspicion
13House Un-American Activities Committee The HUAC was a government body which first made headlines in 1947 when it began investigating communist influence in the movie industryThe committee believed that Communists were sneaking propaganda into filmsThe HUAC subpoenaed witnesses from Hollywood to discuss their involvement“Are you now or have you ever been ”
14“Hollywood Ten” (And two lawyers) Ten witnesses refused to cooperate because they believed the proceedings were unconstitutional – they were jailedSubsequently, the committee blacklisted 500 actors, directors, writers and producers whom they believed had communist connections“Hollywood Ten” (And two lawyers)
15Nixon inspects examines microfilm Hiss case Spies in AmericaTwo spy cases added to the fear gripping the nationAlger Hiss was accused of being a spy for the SovietsA young Republican congressman named Richard Nixon gained fame by tirelessly prosecuting HissHiss was found guilty and jailed – less than four years later Nixon was VPNixon inspects examines microfilm Hiss caseAlger Hiss
17The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage Spies in AmericaThe Rosenberg spy caseThe Rosenbergs were accused of providing information to Soviets which enabled them to produce an atomic bomb in 1949Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were found guilty and executed 1953The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage
19McCarthyismMcCarthyism – term coined by political cartoonist Herbert Block in a 1950s cartoon in reference to Senator Joseph McCarthy (R, Wisconsin, )
20McCarthyismThe most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy.In 1950, McCarthy announced made unsupported claims that 205 members of the State Department were Communists.He worked to identify known communists and accused other based on association.
21McCarthyismFinally, in 1954 McCarthy went too far, accusing high ranking Army officers of being Communists.In the televised proceedings McCarthy’s bullying of witnesses alienated the national audience.Three years later he died of alcoholism at age 49.McCarthy chaired the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
23Project Venona Project Venona Secret join project between the intelligence agencies of the United States and the United Kingdom.In 1946, cryptographers cracked the Soviet spy code, allowing them to read messages between Moscow and the Soviet Embassy.Did not become public knowledge until 1995.It provide strong evidence against the Rosenbergs.
24Discussion QuestionWhy did the hunt for Communist spies increase with the Soviet Union’s production of the atomic bomb?Many believed that the Soviet Union could not have produced the atomic bomb without help.The belief was that American Communists must have sold secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviets.
25Images of the Cold WarImages of the Cold War appeared in films and popular fiction.Along with these fears, the country enjoyed postwar prosperity and optimism.
26Images of the Cold WarAh, the Fifties. A time of innocence (no swearing in movies, but everybody smoked!), yet also a time of conformity, the height of the Cold War, an inherent distrust of intellectuals, fear of nuclear annihilation and Communism! What’s not to like?1950When Worlds CollideThe Day the Earth Stood StillThe Thing1951The War of the Worlds1954Them!1955This Island Earth1956Forbidden PlanetInvasion of the Body Snatchers1957The Incredible Shrinking Man1959On the Beach
27Discussion QuestionWhat two events heightened American concerns about the Cold War?Soviet Union successful test of an atomic bomb.Communist forces taking control of China.