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Native Americans SS4H1: The students will describe how early native American cultures developed in North America.

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Presentation on theme: "Native Americans SS4H1: The students will describe how early native American cultures developed in North America."— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Americans SS4H1: The students will describe how early native American cultures developed in North America

2 SS4H1 The student will describe how early Native American cultures developed in North America. a. Locate where Native Americans settled with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plateau (Nez Perce), Southwest (Hopi), Plains (Pawnee), and Southeast (Seminole). b. Describe how Native Americans used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter. SS4G2 The student will describe how physical systems affect human systems. a. Explain why each of the Native American groups (SS4H1a) occupied the areas they did, with emphasis on why some developed permanent villages and others did not. Native Americans


4 Kwakiutls

5 Where did the Kwakiutl Live? Pacific North West They lived along the Pacific coast in California The climate was rainy and mild. The land was covered with forests and lakes so wildlife and food were abundant. Like the Inuit the Kwakiutl did not farm. Unlike the Inuit they had lots of food available. The area they inhabited was very rich in natural resources. ion/download/guidAssetID/D8A0B77D-3CA6-4F7F-8BA7- E797F8692B1C/strRealname/Native_American_Cultures_of_the_P acific_Region.asf ion/download/guidAssetID/D8A0B77D-3CA6-4F7F-8BA7- E797F8692B1C/strRealname/Native_American_Cultures_of_the_P acific_Region.asf

6 How did the Kwakiutl Survive? The Kwakiutl Indians were fishing people. Kwakiutl men caught fish such as salmon and sea mammals from their canoes. They also hunted deer, birds, and small game. Kwakiutl women gathered clams and shellfish, seaweed, berries, and roots. The resources in this region were plentiful. The Kwakiutl had much leisure time as a result.

7 What were the Kwakiutl homes like? The Kwakiutls lived in coastal villages of rectangular cedar-plank houses with bark roofs. Usually these houses were large (up to 100 feet long) and each one housed several families from the same clan (as many as 50 people.) Here are some pictures of American Indian houses like the ones Kwakiutl Indians used.American Indian houses

8 Kwakiutl Plank Houses

9 What type of transportation did the Kwakiutl use? The Kwakiutl Indian tribe made large dugout canoes by hollowing out cedar logs. The Kwakiutl tribe used these canoes to travel up and down the sea coast for trading, fishing and hunting, and warfare. Their war canoes were more than sixty feet long and could withstand ocean storms. These canoes were bought from the Haida tribe, who had access to the best cedar trees and were considered the best canoe-makers by the other Northwest Coast tribes.Haida

10 What type of transportation did the Kwakiutl use?

11 What type of tools did the Kwakiutl use? Kwakiutl fishermen used harpoons, nets, and wooden fish traps. Hunters used bows and arrows. In war, Kwakiutl men fired their bows or fought with spears and war clubs. Some Kwakiutl warriors wore bulky armor made of wooden rods lashed together to protect themselves from enemy archers.


13 What was Kwakiutl art like? Kwakiutl artists are known for their fine basketry and woodcarving arts, including wooden masks and totem carvings.basketrywoodcarvingwooden maskstotem Dance mask pictures:

14 What are Totem Poles? Totem poles celebrated legends, events, or simply the wealth & crest of the family for whom it was created. The poles were neither worshipped nor had any religious significance. They are records of a past culture that had no written language.

15 Who made them? The Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest Coast created carved images of spirits, mythological animals, and mythological people. These carved images were called totems.

16 How were Totem poles made? These totems were also made into poles, which used various different carved totems to tell a myth or to show the history of a particular clan. The wood used to make these poles was very important. The totem poles needed to be made from either the sacred red or yellow cedar.

17 What did they look like?

18 What did they mean? Bat=Transition Dog= Companionship Elephant=Strength Horse=Stability Mouse=Innocence Lion= Strength Owl=Wisdom Rabbit=Faith Serpent=Health Wolf=Protection Each clan had a totem that was used as a crest, which was like a symbolic family tree. This totem crest decorated the homes of the family members. Some of the major clans had raven, eagle, bear, and wolf totem crests, but there were also many other clans with lots of different animals for crests.

19 What was a Potlatch? Within the tribal groups of the Pacific Northwest, individuals hosting a potlatch give away most, if not all, of their wealth and material goods to show goodwill to the rest of the tribal members and to maintain their social status. Gifts often included blankets, pelts, furs, weapons. Gifts were given by the person or people giving the potlatch. Not the people coming to the party. Food was shared for everyone over many days Bf4 Bf4

20 Thinking Question….

21 Based on how the Kwakiutl survived and lived… Do you think the Kwakiutl had permanent villages or did they have to move to find food?

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