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The Reformation Martin Luther Excellent education, became a priest in 1505 1510 he traveled to Rome and witnessed personally many of the church abuses.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Martin Luther Excellent education, became a priest in 1505 1510 he traveled to Rome and witnessed personally many of the church abuses."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Reformation

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4 Martin Luther Excellent education, became a priest in he traveled to Rome and witnessed personally many of the church abuses he had heard about

5 Swiss Reformation Switzerland, like Germany was confederation of autonomous cantons Some became Protestant, some remained Catholic Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531) – Protestant reformer in Zurich – Humanistic education – Influenced by Erasmus

6 Reformation under Zwingli HRE

7 Zwingli 1519 – competition for position as “people’s priest” … negative campaign … fornication First act as reformer was to end clerical celibacy … right of clergy to marry Whatever lacked literal support in scripture was to be neither believed or practiced

8 Zwingli vs. Luther “Throw down” over transubstantiation Zwingli (spirit) … Luther (body) 1529 at Marburg, debate … issues NOT resolved … Luther called Zwingli a “dangerous fanatic” Zwingli … symbolic Luther … transubstantiation

9 Swiss Civil Wars Civil Wars began between Protestant and Catholic cantons Mostly skirmishes, but there were two major battles … June 1529 and October 1531 VS

10 Calvinism In the second half of the 16 th century Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the dominant Protestant force in Europe Prevalent in France, Netherlands and Scotland Calvinism … Predestination AND individual responsibility to reorder society according to God’s plan

11 HRE Reformation under Calvin

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13 Anabaptism Important radical group that broke from Protestant reform movement 16 th century ancestors of modern Mennonites and Amish From the Greek meaning “to rebaptize”

14 Others Spiritualists – Isolated individuals distinguished by their distain for institutions – Only authority was God’s spirit … spoke to individuals Antitrinitarians – Common sense, rational, ethical – Rejected original sin and predestination – Religious toleration

15 Diet of Augsburg Directed by Charles V (HRE) Protestant and Catholic representatives They left with orders for everyone to return to Catholic church TOO LATE 1531 formation of the Schmalkaldic League (defensive alliance)

16 Expansion and Resistance Denmark … Christian II, Frederick I, Christian III … Sweden … King Gustavus Vasa Poland … politically splintered … no resistance to Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, etc.

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18 Peace of Augsburg September 1555 Peace of Augsburg made division of Christendom permanent Cuius regio, eius religio – Ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land – Religion of the land would match the owner/ruler of the land – Applied to Catholics and Lutherans … NOT Calvinists

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20 People, Places, Vocab Martin Luther John Tetzel Vernacular Justification by faith alone Purgatory Indulgences Charles V Leo X Ninety-five theses Diet of Worms Cantons Ulrich Zwingli Transubstantiation Anabaptists John Calvin Predestination Schmalkaldic League Peace of Augsburg (1555)


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