Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation. R. H. Bainton The Reformation of the 16 c Thus, the papacy emerged as something between an Italian city-state and European."— Presentation transcript:
R. H. Bainton The Reformation of the 16 c Thus, the papacy emerged as something between an Italian city-state and European power, without forgetting at the same time the claim to be the vice- regent of Christ. The Pope often could not make up his mind whether he was the successor of Peter or of Caesar. Such vacillation had much to do with the rise and success of the Protestant Reformation.
Caricature of Pope Alexander VI by Martin Luther, 1545
Causes of the Reformation? Crises of the 14 th & 15 th centuries Corruption in the Catholic Church Simony Pluralism Absenteeism Sale of indulgences Nepotism Moral decline of the Papacy Clerical ignorance Criticism John Wycliff (1329-84) Jan Hus (1369-1415) Thomas a’ Kempis (1380-1471) Erasmus
Martin Luther At father’s urgings began to study law at the University of Erfurt. Epiphany Augustinian Monk and later Professor at University of Wittenberg, Saxony Philosophical problem- How could good works ensure salvation?
Tetzel and Indulgences Crusades Cathedral of Saint Peter Leo X commissioned Tetzel to sell indulgences to finance this venture “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs.”
95 Theses October 31, 1517 Nailed or delivered???? Criticism of Church authority –Questioned scriptural authority –Initial indifference from Leo X –Defiance & protection –Debate –1520 Published theology of reform –Excommunication- 1520 Exurge Domine
Diet of Wurms (Worms) 1521 Mandated for excommunications by Charles V Luther refused to recant –“Here I stand, I can do no other” “Edict of Wurms” Protected by Frederick III Confessions of Augsburg 1530 Many German states turn to Lutheranism –Seizure of Catholic Church lands
Charles V, HRE (Hapsburg) STOP the spread of Protestantism Tried to maintain religious unity in fragmented Empire Focused on war with Ottomans and dynastic struggle in France (really sought to unify Europe)
aka Peasant’s War, German Peasant’s Revolt, Swabian Peasant’s Uprising Twelve Articles: –Demanded end to serfdom, tithes, hunting rights, & other feudal practices Peasants resort to extreme violence Luther –People should obey worldly authorities –Sympathetic but abhors their violence –Urges German princes to meet violence with violence. –BOTH Catholic and Lutheran forces will take part in smashing the revolt- est 100k dead
Taking Sides Schmalkalden League –Formed by Lutheran princes to defend against Charles V –Francis I of France allies with Habsburg-Valois Wars (5X—1521-55) –Catholic France supports Lutherans to keep Germany divided –Charles wins but at what cost? Lutheranism spread everywhere Charles gives up on restoring Catholicism to the HRE
1555 Peace of Augsburg Cuius regio, eius religio Voluntary(?) resettlement by religion Results in permanent religious division Reaffirms the independence of many German states This division stunted German nationalism; Germany will not be unified as a state until 1871
MORE PROTESTANTS Anabaptists: –Rejected secular agreements –No childhood baptism –Rejected the Trinity Longterm –Mennonites –Quakers –Unitarians
calvinism John Calvin 1509-1564 Studies as a priest and then a…. –LAWYER Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) –“Predestination” –Theocracy in Zurich 1540 –Consistory –Presbyterianism (Scotland) –Puritans