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Protestant Revolt The Protestant Reformation involved a series of religious controversies and bloody wars which swept away the universality of the Church.

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Presentation on theme: "Protestant Revolt The Protestant Reformation involved a series of religious controversies and bloody wars which swept away the universality of the Church."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protestant Revolt The Protestant Reformation involved a series of religious controversies and bloody wars which swept away the universality of the Church.

2 The Evidence Martin Luther 95 Theses Charles V Diet Worms Peasant Revolt of 1524-25 Schleitheim Confession Marburg Colloquy Ulrich Zwingli Diet of Augsburg Schmalkaldic League John Calvin Jesuits Peace of Augsburg Council of Trent

3 The Protestant Revolt had its roots in the medieval past when a series of events starting with the Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Councilor Movement embarrassed the Church and undermined the position of the Papacy. The Protestant Revolt had its roots in the medieval past when a series of events starting with the Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Councilor Movement embarrassed the Church and undermined the position of the Papacy. This slide was accelerated by a number of Renaissance popes who were more concerned with secular pursuits than needed reforms in the Church. This slide was accelerated by a number of Renaissance popes who were more concerned with secular pursuits than needed reforms in the Church. There were also lingering political, economic, social, and intellectual forces emerging, which created an environment suitable for rebellion. There were also lingering political, economic, social, and intellectual forces emerging, which created an environment suitable for rebellion. –The rise of national monarchs, –the rise of an educated and wealthy commercial class, –and a spirit of worldliness and individualism The Universal Church no longer suited the Europe. The Universal Church no longer suited the Europe. Martin Luther’s call to reform ignited these forces and produced the Protestant Revolt. Martin Luther’s call to reform ignited these forces and produced the Protestant Revolt.

4 Luther and Zwingli Martin Luther, German monk and Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Erasmian humanist, were initially the two important Protestant thinkers. Martin Luther, German monk and Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Erasmian humanist, were initially the two important Protestant thinkers. Both insisted on “sola scriptura” and attacked indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy, and the Mass. Both insisted on “sola scriptura” and attacked indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy, and the Mass. Both argued that only faith, and not faith combined with good works, determined salvation, and that each individual must interpret the Bible for himself. Both argued that only faith, and not faith combined with good works, determined salvation, and that each individual must interpret the Bible for himself. Because scripture was the only authority, only two sacraments, baptism, and the Eucharist, are legitimate. Because scripture was the only authority, only two sacraments, baptism, and the Eucharist, are legitimate. The church is not a clerical, hierarchical institution with the pope as its head but the community of believers, all whom are equal in status before God whether commoner or cleric. The church is not a clerical, hierarchical institution with the pope as its head but the community of believers, all whom are equal in status before God whether commoner or cleric. Protestants rejected clerical celibacy and in fact promoted the value of marriage. Protestants rejected clerical celibacy and in fact promoted the value of marriage.

5 The Marburg Colloquy Zwingli and Luther disagreed about what happens in the Eucharist. Zwingli and Luther disagreed about what happens in the Eucharist. –Catholics believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation, the actual transformation of the wine and wafer into the blood and body of Christ. –Luther believed in the doctrine of the Real Presence, which holds that Jesus is present in the wine and wafer during the Eucharist but this presence is not physical. Luther's concept is known as the doctrine of consubstantiation. –Zwingli argued that the Eucharist was only a memorial. –The Eucharist was a divisive issue among Protestants.


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