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Protestant Reformation. Guided Question What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation? What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation?

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Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation. Guided Question What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation? What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Protestant Reformation

2 Guided Question What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation? What were the major causes of the Protestant Reformation? How did the Protestant faith differ from Catholicism? How did the Protestant faith differ from Catholicism? What are the differences between Zwingli, Anabaptists, Calvanists, Spiritualists, Antitrinitarians…. What are the differences between Zwingli, Anabaptists, Calvanists, Spiritualists, Antitrinitarians….

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4 Martin Luther He felt guilty as a child He felt guilty as a child Angry father Angry father St Anne-”I will become a monk” St Anne-”I will become a monk” Wanted to find peace of mind Wanted to find peace of mind

5 Challenges to Medieval Church Challenges to Medieval Church Not a viable solution to Piety Not a viable solution to Piety More Heartfelt, idealism More Heartfelt, idealism More knowledge, Travel, Printing Press-books and libraries. More knowledge, Travel, Printing Press-books and libraries. A simple religion of love and self-sacrifice- J.C.-spiritual church-more voice. A simple religion of love and self-sacrifice- J.C.-spiritual church-more voice.

6 Collapse of Church: Collapse of Church: Regional Identity, local secular administration, nationalism Regional Identity, local secular administration, nationalism Sale of Indulgences-Protest Sale of Indulgences-Protest Buy release of time in purgatory-themselves and loved ones Buy release of time in purgatory-themselves and loved ones St Peter’s Basilica St Peter’s Basilica No taxes on Church property No taxes on Church property

7 His Ideas Against Indulgences-greed, hypocrisy, and moral rot Against Indulgences-greed, hypocrisy, and moral rot No human being had the power to abolish sins No human being had the power to abolish sins Close Monasteries Close Monasteries Translation of Bible Translation of Bible End the Power of Pope End the Power of Pope Salvation by faith alone in GOD Salvation by faith alone in GOD Bible as the only true authority Bible as the only true authority Baptism and communion-Valid Sacraments Baptism and communion-Valid Sacraments

8 Protestant Reformation-Sharp conflict between emerging nation-states and self-governing towns. Protestant Reformation-Sharp conflict between emerging nation-states and self-governing towns. Protestant: Protestant: Guilds-economically prosperous, socially rising. Guilds-economically prosperous, socially rising. Religious FREEDOM-relevant to townspeople of German cities. Religious FREEDOM-relevant to townspeople of German cities.

9 Modern Devotion Lay religious movement Lay religious movement Northern Europe Northern Europe Boarding school for reform minded Laity Boarding school for reform minded Laity Prayer and Study Prayer and Study Common life, stressing individual piety and practical religion Common life, stressing individual piety and practical religion Educators, publications, ran hospices, schools.. Educators, publications, ran hospices, schools..

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12 Righteousness that God demands-not from charitable acts but any who believe in him Righteousness that God demands-not from charitable acts but any who believe in him Good works-lifetime-not because of SALVATION An indulgence-confessed moral sins-remission Good works-lifetime-not because of SALVATION An indulgence-confessed moral sins-remission Crusaders-couldn’t complete penances because they have fallen in battle Crusaders-couldn’t complete penances because they have fallen in battle Johann Tetzel Johann Tetzel

13 Johann Tetzel

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16 Melancholia

17 Knight, Death and Devil

18 Break with Church Luther disagreed with Church practices Luther disagreed with Church practices Bible sole religious authority Bible sole religious authority God viewed all believers equally God viewed all believers equally Printing Press to spread ideas Printing Press to spread ideas Pope Leo X-Excommunicated Luther Pope Leo X-Excommunicated Luther Luther-translated the Bible-Germany Luther-translated the Bible-Germany All Germans can read Bible All Germans can read Bible

19 Calvinism John Calvin John Calvin Germany Germany Thirty Years War Thirty Years War Divine Predestination, Justification by faith alone, Destiny-Gods hands, God’s elect Divine Predestination, Justification by faith alone, Destiny-Gods hands, God’s elect Transform society Transform society “to live according to the Gospel and the Word of God …without any more Masses, statues, idols, or papal abuses”. “to live according to the Gospel and the Word of God …without any more Masses, statues, idols, or papal abuses”.

20 Zwingli Switzerland-loose confederation of states- catholic and protestant Switzerland-loose confederation of states- catholic and protestant Erasmus Erasmus Whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced Whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced Saints, pilgrimages, fasting, purgatory, sacraments Saints, pilgrimages, fasting, purgatory, sacraments Zwingli vs Luther-Eucharist Zwingli vs Luther-Eucharist

21 Anabaptists Mennonites and Amish Mennonites and Amish No infant baptism No infant baptism Conrad Grebel Conrad Grebel Pacifism Pacifism Non-participation of Church offices Non-participation of Church offices

22 Spiritualist Disdain for external, institutional religion Disdain for external, institutional religion Only religious authority-GOD Only religious authority-GOD

23 Charles V-Emperor Charles V-Emperor Diet of Worms Diet of Worms Ordered to recant Ordered to recant Placed under the Imperial Ban-”outlaw” Placed under the Imperial Ban-”outlaw” Wartburg Castle: Translated New Testament in German Wartburg Castle: Translated New Testament in German Peasants Revolt: Peasants(freedom) Peasants Revolt: Peasants(freedom) Peasants Revolted against Landlords-Luther Condemned them-”unchristian” Peasants Revolted against Landlords-Luther Condemned them-”unchristian”

24 Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation Assembly of Protestants and Catholics Assembly of Protestants and Catholics Religious divisions Religious divisions Charles V-asked all to convert back to Catholicism-NEGATIVE!!!! Charles V-asked all to convert back to Catholicism-NEGATIVE!!!! Lutherans created-Augsburg Confession- defensive alliance Lutherans created-Augsburg Confession- defensive alliance Reaction against Protestants Reaction against Protestants Peace of Augsburg-The ruler of a land would determine its religion. Peace of Augsburg-The ruler of a land would determine its religion.

25 Teachings Justification by FAITH alone Justification by FAITH alone It was unbilical-treat good works-eternal salvation It was unbilical-treat good works-eternal salvation Faith-sets narcissistic souls apart Faith-sets narcissistic souls apart

26 Spread Frederick of Saxony-protected Luther Frederick of Saxony-protected Luther Excommunicated in Excommunicated in Promoted-Nobility and Commoners Promoted-Nobility and Commoners Peace of Augsburg-”he rules; his religion” Peace of Augsburg-”he rules; his religion” Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland, England Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland, England France-declared Heretical France-declared Heretical Civil War 1562 Civil War 1562 Edict of Nantes-1589-Religious Toleration Edict of Nantes-1589-Religious Toleration

27 Protestantism Emperor Charles V-Opposed Luther’s teachings Emperor Charles V-Opposed Luther’s teachings Followers-Protestants Followers-Protestants Spread of Protestantism-Printing Press-Spread of Ideas Spread of Protestantism-Printing Press-Spread of Ideas Lutheran Church Lutheran Church

28 Spread of Protestantism Zwingli-Switzerland Zwingli-Switzerland John Calvin-French Protestant John Calvin-French Protestant Predestination-God decided who would be saved Predestination-God decided who would be saved France-Calvinists-Huguenots France-Calvinists-Huguenots

29 Transforming society spiritually and morally Transforming society spiritually and morally Elect-should act a God pleasing manner Elect-should act a God pleasing manner Michael Servetus-Condemned-Died at the stake Michael Servetus-Condemned-Died at the stake

30 Indulgence: Indulgence: Rebuilding St. Peters Cathedral Rebuilding St. Peters Cathedral John Tetzel John Tetzel

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34 The Diet of Worms-tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire; power to outlaw-condemn to be burned at the stake. The Diet of Worms-tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire; power to outlaw-condemn to be burned at the stake. Peasants War-German farmers used force against their landowners. Peasants War-German farmers used force against their landowners.

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36 Anabaptists-Mennonites and Amish Anabaptists-Mennonites and Amish Adult Baptism Adult Baptism Conrad Grebel-Leader of Anabaptists Conrad Grebel-Leader of Anabaptists Refusal to swear oaths, non-participation in the offices of gov’t Refusal to swear oaths, non-participation in the offices of gov’t

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