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Lines and Knots for Your Boat by Nancy Free. 2 Marlinespike Seamanship Art of handling and working with ropeArt of handling and working with rope This.

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Presentation on theme: "Lines and Knots for Your Boat by Nancy Free. 2 Marlinespike Seamanship Art of handling and working with ropeArt of handling and working with rope This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lines and Knots for Your Boat by Nancy Free

2 2 Marlinespike Seamanship Art of handling and working with ropeArt of handling and working with rope This includesThis includes –Knowledge of rope materials and construction –How to care for your lines –Difference between knots, bends, and hitches –Basic knots to know and their uses Hands on knot practiceHands on knot practice

3 3 Lines vs. Ropes Rope is what you buy at the store on a spool.Rope is what you buy at the store on a spool. Lines are pieces of rope cut to length and put in service.Lines are pieces of rope cut to length and put in service. Exceptions are bell ropes. bolt and foot ropes on sails.Exceptions are bell ropes. bolt and foot ropes on sails. Some lines have special names - painters on small boats, lead lines, anchor rodes.Some lines have special names - painters on small boats, lead lines, anchor rodes.

4 4 Three Types of Rope Materials Natural FibersNatural Fibers SyntheticsSynthetics Wires (stainless and galvanized)Wires (stainless and galvanized)

5 5 Rope Materials Natural Fibers Natural fibers include Manila (strongest), cotton, sisal, hemp, jute, and flaxNatural fibers include Manila (strongest), cotton, sisal, hemp, jute, and flax Manila and cotton are the only ones commonly used today.Manila and cotton are the only ones commonly used today. Natural fibers have disadvantages.Natural fibers have disadvantages. –are weaker than synthetics –shrink when wet –are subject to rot Used mainly on tall shipsUsed mainly on tall ships

6 7 Synthetic Fibers AdvantagesAdvantages –MUCH stronger than natural fibers, wet or dry –Don’t shrink when wet like natural fibers –Resist rot, mildew, acids, and alkalis DisadvantagesDisadvantages –Slippery, don’t hold knots and splices as well –May be damaged by heat and UV light

7 8 Synthetic Fibers Nylon AdvantagesAdvantages –Strongest commonly used fiber –Won’t rot –Most elastic of all fibers – good for lines subject to shock (examples?) DisadvantagesDisadvantages –Very elastic – bad for lines that need to be taut (examples?) –Dangerous if it breaks under strain –Slippery, unravels easily

8 9 Synthetic Fibers Polyester (Dacron) AdvantagesAdvantages –Much less elastic than nylon useful for lines that must be taut –Nearly as strong as nylon –More pliable than nylon DisadvantagesDisadvantages –Chafes easily under strain –Much less elastic than nylon; not good for lines subject to shock.

9 10 Synthetic Fibers Polyolefin (polyethylene, polypropylene) AdvantagesAdvantages –They float (examples of use?) –Cheapest fibers DisadvantagesDisadvantages –Degrade and weaken in sunlight –Weakest synthetics –Stiff and slippery; knots may come undone –Rough and hard on the hands

10 11 Other Types of Rope Materials Wire rope (usually stainless steel)Wire rope (usually stainless steel) –Used for standing or permanent rigging on sailboats, davits –Maximum strength and little stretch –Tends to be stiff and inflexible –May snag and cut hands Shock CordShock Cord –Rubber strands covered with synthetic fiber –Used to tie down loads Webbing (woven nylon)Webbing (woven nylon) –Strong, holds knots well –Used for tie downs, sail stops

11 Rope Construction Laid Rope Most rope is right laid. Coil with the lay to avoid kinks.Most rope is right laid. Coil with the lay to avoid kinks. To construct laid ropeTo construct laid rope –Fibers are twisted into yarns. –Yarns are twisted in the opposite direction into strands. –Strands are twisted in the original direction to form rope. 12

12 Rope Construction Braided Rope Made of interwoven strandsMade of interwoven strands Smoother and easier on the hands than laid ropeSmoother and easier on the hands than laid rope Can be single or double braidedCan be single or double braided Double braided has an inner core and is stronger than laid rope of same size.Double braided has an inner core and is stronger than laid rope of same size. More expensive than laid ropeMore expensive than laid rope 13

13 14 Care of Lines Keep all lines, synthetic or natural Dry and well ventilated to prevent mildewDry and well ventilated to prevent mildew Free of kinksFree of kinks Free of dirt, oil, acid; wash after wetting with sea waterFree of dirt, oil, acid; wash after wetting with sea water Run bow lines through a chock. Use chafing gear on lines subject to wear.Run bow lines through a chock. Use chafing gear on lines subject to wear. Inspect lines for wear every season.Inspect lines for wear every season. Whip lines to keep them from coming unlaid.Whip lines to keep them from coming unlaid.

14 Care of Lines Coil up lines when stowing them.Coil up lines when stowing them. Fake (or flake) down lines that have to run out fast without kinks.Fake (or flake) down lines that have to run out fast without kinks. Flemish a line lying on a flat surface to give it a neat, flat look.Flemish a line lying on a flat surface to give it a neat, flat look. 15

15 16 Types of Knots Anything you tie in a line is a knot (general sense of knot).Anything you tie in a line is a knot (general sense of knot). A knot, in the strict sense, is tied in a single line.A knot, in the strict sense, is tied in a single line. –Square knot A bend is a knot that ties two lines together.A bend is a knot that ties two lines together. –Sheet bend A hitch is a knot that ties a line to an object.A hitch is a knot that ties a line to an object. –Clove hitch –Rolling hitch

16 Overhand Knot Simplest, easiest knot to tie.Simplest, easiest knot to tie. It’s a “not” knot.It’s a “not” knot. Limited use as a “stopper knot” or to keep a line from fraying.Limited use as a “stopper knot” or to keep a line from fraying. Weakens line strength by 50%.Weakens line strength by 50%. May be useful as the start of more complex knots.May be useful as the start of more complex knots. 17

17 Figure Eight Knot Used by sailors as a stopper knot to keep the end of a line from running through a block or pulleyUsed by sailors as a stopper knot to keep the end of a line from running through a block or pulley Bulkier and better as a stopper knot than an overhand knotBulkier and better as a stopper knot than an overhand knot 18

18 Square Knot (Reef Knot) Used forUsed for –reefing or furling sails –tying bags, packages, and shoes Tie it only in single line or two similar lines. (It’s a knot.)Tie it only in single line or two similar lines. (It’s a knot.) Dangerous if used to tie unlike lines; capsizes under strainDangerous if used to tie unlike lines; capsizes under strain 19

19 Sheet Bend, Becket Bend, Weaver’s Knot Use it to tieUse it to tie –two dissimilar lines together –a small line to a becket* (loop in a line) Make the sheet bend double or triple for securityMake the sheet bend double or triple for security Make it “slippery” for ease in untyingMake it “slippery” for ease in untying 20

20 Clove Hitch Use it to tieUse it to tie –a line to a rail or piling temporarily –fenders to a railing Easy to untie (esp. if it’s slipped.)Easy to untie (esp. if it’s slipped.) Tends to come undone unless under constant tensionTends to come undone unless under constant tension 21

21 Round Turn & Two Half Hitches Use to tie a line to an object “A round turn an two half hitches will hold most anything.”Use to tie a line to an object “A round turn an two half hitches will hold most anything.” More permanent and secure than a clove hitch, harder to untieMore permanent and secure than a clove hitch, harder to untie 22

22 Anchor Bend Most secure hitch to attach a line to an object such as a ring or postMost secure hitch to attach a line to an object such as a ring or post Use to attach a line to an anchor or a fishhookUse to attach a line to an anchor or a fishhook Similar to a round turn and two half hitchesSimilar to a round turn and two half hitches 23

23 Rolling Hitch Used toUsed to – tie a smaller line to the standing part of another a line under a load –make an adjustable loop by tying the working end to the standing part of the same line –tie a flag to a flag halyard 24

24 Bowline “King of Knots” Forms a non-slip loop that’s easily untiedForms a non-slip loop that’s easily untied Called the “king of knots” because of its many uses (Suggestions?)Called the “king of knots” because of its many uses (Suggestions?) 25

25 Cleat Hitch Secures a line to a horn cleatSecures a line to a horn cleat To tie it -To tie it - –Take only one full turn around the base of the cleat. –Make one figure eight turn around both horns. –To make it more secure, finish with an under hand loop (weather hitch) 23

26 Lead Lines A line with a lead weight used to measure water depth To use itA line with a lead weight used to measure water depth To use it –Mark the line at intervals. –Coil the line and throw the lead out in front of the boat. –When the line stands vertical, note the marker just above the water.

27 Dipping the Eye Technique to use when tying to a piling where another boat is tied.Technique to use when tying to a piling where another boat is tied. Avoids putting your line on top of the one already there.Avoids putting your line on top of the one already there. “Dip the eye” by bringing the loop of your line through the eye of the first line and then over the post.“Dip the eye” by bringing the loop of your line through the eye of the first line and then over the post.

28 29 Knot Rodeo Find a sign for a knot that you don’t already know.Find a sign for a knot that you don’t already know. Go to the station for that knot and watch the demo and ask questions.Go to the station for that knot and watch the demo and ask questions. Get as much hands-on time as time permits. You can’t learn from looking at pictures.Get as much hands-on time as time permits. You can’t learn from looking at pictures. Practice, practice, practice is the only way to learn.Practice, practice, practice is the only way to learn.


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