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The Growth of Towns and Villages in Medieval Europe
Medieval Towns In the Middle Ages, most northern and western European cities had fewer than 2,000 people. A few cities were larger. By the 1200s, for example, about 150,000 people lived in Paris. Some revived cities from antiquity, many other new (along trade routes) The Growth of Towns
Merchants moved into medieval towns to trade Did not want to pay high taxes to local lords in those towns King allowed charters for new towns run by merchants, taxes paid only to king Paris, London, and Rome grew quickly and began to be referred to as cities Free Towns New advances of farm technology Heavier plow increased amount of crops grown on land; water mill, windmill, used power of nature to grind wheat into flour Improved technology meant fewer people needed to farm Enabled more people to move to cities New Technology Growth of Towns and Cities
Life in Cities and Towns Cities and towns became exciting places to live. However, many were also dark, unsafe, dirty, and unhealthy There was no sewage or rubbish control. There were no streetlights. There were no police. People could not go out of their homes in the evening. They feared being robbed.
The Black Death Because of the garbage (rubbish) problem a disease called the Black Death (bubonic plague) spread quickly This disease covered most of the European continent The disease began in Asia and spread via trade routes between Europe and Asia The cause: Rats and fleas Entire villages and town died. About 25 million people or 30-35 % of Europe’s population were killed
“They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I buried my five children with my own hands.” Angolo di Tura, quoted in The Black Death, by Robert S. Gottfried
The Spread of the Black Death 1347-1351
Guilds Merchants – merchants not from town had to pay a fee to trade in towns Workers – artisan guilds set guidelines for wages, hours, and working conditions; young boys would start as an apprentice, then journeyman become after five to nine years of training, then master of that artisan guild The Growth of Towns
Classes All inhabitants of the city were bougeois (plural: bourgeoisie- burguesía), although between the upper, middle, and lower class there were many differences. The merchants and the master workers became what is called the middle class. They were between the class of nobles and that of peasants and unskilled workers. The middle class gained a lot of power in the High Middle Ages because of a close working connection with the upper class.
Trade Fairs and Markets Merchants needed to get goods (products) to customers, traveled long distances to visit trade fairs Trade fairs held in towns, attracted huge crowds, buyers and sellers met there, merchants traveled from one fair to another Great variety of goods (products) offered, rare fabrics, aromatic spices, animals Hanseatic League Italians dominated trade in south Hanseatic League traded in northern Europe Northern German towns worked together to promote and protect trade Controlled most trade between Europe, Russia, Baltic region Trading
Money Trade encouraged use of money, had not been common in Europe for years Previously workers paid with goods or services Cities began minting (making) coins, workers began demanding coins for payment Banks Use of money and credit led to creation of Europe’s first banks People deposited money for safety, asked for loans Most money-lenders (bankers) were Jews, and were not allowed many other occupations Credit Some merchants allowed customers to buy goods on credit In return for goods, customer signed document stating when and how payment would be made Money and Credit
High Middle Ages Timeline
High Middle Ages- Europe Timeline 1066- Battle of Hastings 11th Century- Rise of Venice 1095-1272- Crusades 1298- Rivalry of Venice/Genova 1340s- Plague 1337-1453- Hundred Year’s War
Review Improved farming technology meant ____ ____ _____ ____ ________. Merchants who moved into medieval towns did not want to ___ ___________. Because of the rubbish problems in towns __ ____ ___ ___ ___. It spread along (a lo largo de) ____ ____ and was carried by _______ and _____. About ___ million people or ___% of the population died.
Review 1. Improved farming technology meant fewer people needed to farm. 2. Merchants who moved into medieval towns did not want to pay taxes. 3. Because of the rubbish problems in towns the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) spread quickly. 4. It spread along (a lo largo de) trade routes and was carried by rats and fleas. 5. About 25 million people or 30-35% of the population died.
Review 6. _________ set guidelines for wages, hours, and working conditions. 7. All inhabitants of the city were ________. 8. Trade encouraged ___ ____ __ _______. 9. Some merchants allowed customers to buy goods on __________. 10. The use of money led to the creation of ____ _______ _____, where people could ______ _____ for safety or ask for a ____.
Review 6. Guilds set guidelines for wages, hours, and working conditions. 7. All inhabitants of the city were bourgeois. 8. Trade encouraged the use of money. 9. Some merchants allowed customers to buy goods on credit. 10. The use of money led to the creation of Europe’s first banks, where people could deposit money for safety or ask for a loan.
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